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Каталог заданий.
Задания 9. Понимание основного содержания прочитанного текста
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1
Задание 9 № 88

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Traditional delivery

2. Loss of popularity

3. Money above privacy

4. The best-known newspapers

5. Focus on different readers

6. The successful competitor

7. Size makes a difference

8. Weekend reading

 

A. As in many other European countries, Britain’s main newspapers are losing their readers. Fewer and fewer people are buying broadsheets and tabloids at the newsagent’s. In the last quarter of the twentieth century people became richer and now they can choose other forms of leisure activity. Also, there is the Internet which is a convenient and inexpensive alternative source of news.

 

B. The ‘Sunday papers’ are so called because that is the only day on which they are published. Sunday papers are usually thicker than the dailies and many of them have six or more sections. Some of them are ‘sisters’ of the daily newspapers. It means they are published by the same company but not on week days.

 

C. Another proof of the importance of ‘the papers’ is the morning ‘paper round’. Most newsagents organise these. It has become common that more than half of the country’s readers get their morning paper brought to their door by a teenager. The boy or girl usually gets up at around 5:30 a.m. every day including Sunday to earn a bit of pocket money.

 

D. The quality papers or broadsheets are for the better educated readers. They devote much space to politics and other ‘serious’ news. The popular papers, or tabloids, sell to a much larger readership. They contain less text and a lot more pictures. They use bigger headlines and write in a simpler style of English. They concentrate on ‘human interest stories’ which often means scandal.

 

E. Not so long ago in Britain if you saw someone reading a newspaper you could tell what kind it was without even checking the name. It was because the quality papers were printed on very large pages called ‘broadsheet’. You had to have expert turning skills to be able to read more than one page. The tabloids were printed on much smaller pages which were much easier to turn.

 

F. The desire to attract more readers has meant that in the twentieth century sometimes even the broadsheets in Britain look rather ‘popular’. They give a lot of coverage to scandal and details of people’s private lives. The reason is simple. What matters most for all newspaper publishers is making a profit. They would do anything to sell more copies.

 

G. If you go into any newsagent’s shop in Britain you will not find only newspapers. You will also see rows and rows of magazines for almost every imaginable taste. There are specialist magazines for many popular pastimes. There are around 3,000 of them published in the country and they are widely read, especially by women. Magazines usually list all the TV and radio programmes for the coming week and many British readers prefer them to newspapers.

 

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Источник: ГИА по английскому языку 31.05.2013. Основная волна. Вариант 1301.

2
Задание 9 № 123

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. The symbols of London

2. Means of travelling

3. World record holder

4. A sweet in the street

5. On the road

6. A healthy but difficult choice

7. An unusual hobby

8. Conflict over roads

 

A. The British are enthusiastic about mobility. They think that the ability to travel far and frequently is their right. People can spend up to two or three hours commuting to London or another big city and arrive back at their homes in the countryside only late in the evening. They put up with the long journey because they want their families to avoid the unhealthy lifestyle of big cities.

 

B. Most journeys to work are made by private road transport. It leads to the pollution so familiar to many big cities, and to traffic jams. Congestion is especially high in Britain because the British do not welcome the idea of building new roads. They don’t like living close to them. Each proposal to build a new road is criticised so it’s not easy to improve the road situation.

 

C. Perhaps because the trains were the first means of transport in Britain many people still have a romantic outlook on them. Thousands of train-lovers spend a lot of time looking for information about trains, especially old steam engines. Many enthusiasts spend their free time restoring and repairing old trains. They even earn some money by offering rides to tourists.

 

D. It is possible to travel between any two towns or cities by either road or rail. In some parts of the country there is a very good rail network but most commercially successful trains run between London and the largest cities in the country. By modern European standards British trains are not fast. Coach services are generally even slower than trains but are much cheaper. It explains why they are still in use.

 

E. Britain is one of the few countries in Europe where double-decker buses are a common sight. Although single-deckers have been in use since 1960s, London still has many double-deckers in operation. They are world-famous, an image associated with the city. Another London icon is the black taxi. Normally, these traditional taxis cannot be hired by phone. You simply have to find one on the street.

 

F. In 1953, most schoolchildren walked to school. For this reason, school crossing patrols were introduced. This ‘patrol’ consists of an adult wearing a bright waterproof coat and carrying a stick with a circle on top of it, which reads ‘STOP’. Armed with this ‘lollipop’, the adult walks out into the middle of the road, stops the traffic and allows the children to cross.

 

G. On 9 January 2013, the London Underground (or the Tube) celebrated 150 years since the first underground journey. It is both the world's oldest underground railway and the oldest rapid transit system. It was also the first underground railway to operate electric trains. The Underground has 268 stations and 400 km of track, making it the longest metro system in the world by route length.

 

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Источник: ГИА по английскому языку 31.05.2013. Основная волна. Вариант 1302.

3
Задание 9 № 158

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. A change in people’s attitude

2. A problem still unsolved

3. A new state organisation

4. A governmental plan of action

5. No time to waste

6. An eco-friendly means of transport

7. A set of dangerous signs

8. A reason for global warming

 

A. Recycling is becoming easier and more widespread. Governments support companies that recycle waste. Also people prefer to buy things from companies that make their products from recycled materials. Reports say that people worldwide are starting to care more about what happens to waste products. For example, now Americans recycle almost 35% of their waste, while in the 1990s the percentage was much smaller.

 

B. In autumn 2004 a new governmental body was created in Russia to protect the country’s natural resources. It’s called the Federal Ecological Service. The aims of the new institution are the following: to prevent environmental pollution and to control industrial waste. They say that the new governmental service has improved the state system of environmental protection in Russia.

 

C. Climate change is on us. Ten years ago we only spoke about it, now it’s happening before our eyes. Global warming is bringing unpredictable changes. The Arctic sea ice is disappearing; glaciers are melting faster every year. Due to heavy rains some rivers overflow, while others dry out. Disasters such as tornadoes and floods are spreading. Strong hurricanes are becoming more common and more destructive.

 

D. People burn plenty of coal, oil and natural gas. As a result of this billions of tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) are released into the atmosphere every year. CO2 is a greenhouse gas that traps the sun's radiation within the atmosphere so the concentration of CO2 increases. As a result of this, temperatures in different parts of the planet rise.

 

E. They are designed to work using electric power, without gasoline. It means that they don’t pollute the atmosphere, cost less and reduce the need for oil. Such cars are reliable and have interesting designs. However, they have a few bad points. Many have a maximum speed limit of about 50 miles per hour. Most cities are not ready for the appearance of such cars on their roads.

 

F. Environmental organisations have been discussing ways of saving the rain forests for many years. However, we are still facing huge losses in the Amazon. People think that rainforests have already had enough attention. They have been discussed in the press for years. Unfortunately the rainforest is still in danger and can be destroyed completely.

 

G. Environmental problems are serious and we have to deal with them immediately. There may not be easy solutions but we simply can’t continue living as if everything is fine. These problems aren’t going to disappear by themselves. If we want to keep this planet a healthy place for our grandchildren, it’s time to do everything we can to stop the catastrophe.

 

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Источник: ГИА по английскому языку 31.05.2013. Основная волна. Вариант 1303.

4
Задание 9 № 193

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Exploring wildlife

2. Active pastimes

3. The land of sun and beauty

4. Mind the strong wind

5. The symbols of Florida

6. Entertainment for children

7. Life on a beach

8. A family holiday resort

 

A. Florida has always been very popular with tourists from different parts of the world. It presents a lucky combination of pleasant climate and man-made attractions. Thousands of parents and their children go there in search of fun, sun and entertainment. They enjoy theme parks like the Walt Disney World Resort and the Sea World Resort, numerous movie studios, water parks, pools and other facilities.

 

B. One of the most popular places is the Walt Disney Resort, the biggest amusement park in the world. It includes different attractions for younger tourists. Children can enjoy magic exhibits or explore science at special centers situated within the area of the resort. They can also watch wild animals at the Animal Kingdom or enjoy one of the world movies at Disney Studios.

 

C. However, there is more to see in Florida than just Mickey Mouse. Florida is probably the sunniest state of the USA. Its nickname is the ‘Sunshine State’. Though Florida is one of the flattest states in America, its landscape is really amazing. Lakes with fresh water, hills, forests, eight miles of coastline and countless small islands create a fantastic atmosphere in the resort.

 

D. Florida provides an opportunity for adventure on both land and water. There are many types of unique wildlife, including dolphins and whales, deer and black bears. Tourists can enjoy African wildlife in a huge park in Tampa Bay. Giraffes, lions and zebras walk through the park’s grounds. Tourists can watch the animals in the wild and take photos. It goes without saying all kinds of hunting are strictly prohibited.

 

E. Besides all of this, Florida is also an extremely popular seaside resort. One of its beaches was called the safest bathing beach in the world. The range of facilities for holidaymakers is also impressive — from banana riding to renting boats for fishing and dolphin watching. Numerous cafes offer tourists excellent service, tasty seafood and a vast variety of drinks to cool down on a hot day.

 

F. The warm summers and mild winters make Florida an ideal place for different sports like boating, diving, surfing and water skiing. Not only are water sports popular — lots of people go there to play golf and they even plan their vacations around golfing! There are more golf courses in Florida than in any other state of the USA. There are state and private courses within a short driving distance of each other.

 

G. Hurricanes are a fact of Florida life. They can affect some vacations that is why it’s wise to avoid Florida in certain months. The Florida Hurricane Season officially starts on June 1 and ends on November 30. Historically, September is the most active month of the year. The National Hurricane Centre monitors the territory of Florida in order to warn the people of the danger well beforehand.

 

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Источник: ГИА по английскому языку 31.05.2013. Основная волна. Вариант 1304.

5
Задание 9 № 228

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Popular route

2. The secret of the old rocks

3. City of contrasts

4. Escape the heat

5. Common roots

6. Wildlife holidays

7. Holy waters

8. Movie magic

 

A. The world’s first university was established in India in 700 BC, where more than 10,500 students from around the world studied more than 60 different subjects. The training was conducted in Sanskrit. Nowadays Sanskrit is considered to be the mother of all the European languages. Its elements can be traced in most of them.

 

B. The most frequently visited place in India is Delhi, the capital of the country. It seems to be divided into two parts. New Delhi is a modern city with hi-tech architecture, tourist attractions and modern facilities. Old Delhi is several centuries old, with narrow streets, ancient churches and noisy bazaars. Lots of people live in slums without the most essential facilities like toilets and running water.

 

C. People all over the world know of India’s greatest river, the Ganges. It is the subject of thousands of prayers. The river looks extremely beautiful in the morning light. It is believed that bathing in the Ganges helps to cure all kinds of diseases and can improve your life in general. It has become a common ritual for pilgrims to gather by the river in the mornings.

 

D. The most famous and often visited Indian historic area is the Golden Triangle. It consists of the cities of Delhi, Agra and Jaipur. Lying in the south-east, Agra attracts tourists with its iconic image of the Taj Mahal palace, which is one of the eight wonders of the modern world. To the south-west is the colourful ‘Pink City’ of Jaipur, known for its Palace of Winds.

 

E. Indian climate differs from one part of the country to another. The air is cool and fresh in the mountains but in the plains it is usually very hot and dry so even a short trip can be very hard for an inexperienced traveller. That is why tourists are always glad to have a rest at one of the numerous stations in the hills. There they can enjoy a nice cup of real Indian tea, the most refreshing drink in such a climate.

 

F. India is not all history. It is also famous for its Bollywood industry, which produces love stories and action films. Indian films have always had their own style, rich in music and dancing. Though the industry is still developing, many of Indian film stars have received Oscar prizes and are known throughout the world. The home of Bollywood is Bombay, also known as a busy port and the country’s commercial centre.

 

G. There is an unusual treasure hidden in the Indian mountains. These are striking ancient temples cut in the rocks. For example, the Buddhist cave temples at Ajanta were built at least 2,000 years ago. Inside the caves on the walls tourists can see pictures of people’s lives and animal images. Some researchers believe that the interpretation of the images can help us to learn a lot about people’s lives in ancient times.

 

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Источник: ГИА по английскому языку 31.05.2013. Основная волна. Вариант 1305.

6
Задание 9 № 263

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. A talisman for luck

2. The wildlife of the country

3. The modern side of the country

4. Useful in many ways

5. A country profile

6. A false stereotype

7. Opportunities for different sports

8. The national sporting event

 

A. Thanks to television and films, Scotland is often seen by the rest of the world as a magical country, a land of misty mountains and the home of a lake creature called Nessie. This is the image most people have in mind. The truth, however, is completely different from the way the world thinks of Scotland. You may be surprised to find out that most Scots live in the lowlands and don’t believe in Nessie.

 

B. Scotland is much more than green hills and picturesque valleys. It’s dynamic and cosmopolitan, with a colourful history of invention and innovation. It’s the home of big businesses and a centre of new medical and scientific development. Each year, it hosts the world's biggest contemporary arts festivals. Scotland is an exciting place to live in, particularly for a young person.

 

C. Scottish heather, a small bush with flowers, is the floral symbol of the country. The colour of the flowers usually varies from purple to lilac, but they can also be white. In the past, the Scots believed that they would never be captured by enemies and would win victories if they wore white heather. Today, when getting married, girls add white heather to bouquets to bring fortune to their family.

 

D. Heather has grown in Scotland as far back as its history goes. This has turned it into a kind of household good. Heather honey is rich in minerals, and was traditionally used in medicinal drinks. Thousands of years ago, dried heather was used to make perfumes, and the tough stems were used to make ropes. On many of the northern Scottish islands, heather played a major role in the construction of houses.

 

E. Scotland is an excellent destination for open-air activities all year round. Its lakes and coastline are ideal for boating and rowing and have some of the best sea-kayaking in the world. The rivers are perfect for fishing and the mountains are wonderful for hill climbing and skiing. Scotland is also good for walkers. You can enjoy easy family walks or more difficult mountain hikes.

 

F. The Highland Games in Scotland date from long before Scotland’s written history. The various athletics allowed men to demonstrate their physical power and the skills needed for battle and survival. The Games today still include the athletic competitions in their original form together with dancing contests. All the competitors wear kilts. Traditional bagpipe music accompanies all the events.

 

G. Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Edinburgh, the country's capital and second largest city, is one of Europe's financial centres. The population of the country is a little over 5 million people. The currency is the pound sterling although the Bank of Scotland issues its own notes and coins.

 

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Источник: ГИА по английскому языку 31.05.2013. Основная волна. Вариант 1306.

7
Задание 9 № 298

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Coffee in the New World

2. The original taste of coffee

3. A chance discovery

4. A place for communication

5. An illegal drink

6. A long journey to Europe

7. Growing coffee plants

8. Different recipes

 

A. Coffee was first found in Eastern Africa in the area we know today as Ethiopia. A popular legend says that one day a man called Kaldi was watching his goats eating grass and leaves. He noticed that after eating berries from a certain bush the goats became very active. Curious, Kaldi tried the berries himself. He found that these berries gave him additional energy. The story quickly spread throughout the region.

 

B. The first coffee berries were transported from Ethiopia to Arabian countries and then they were cultivated in Yemen. From there, coffee travelled to Turkey where coffee beans were roasted for the first time over open fires. The roasted beans were crushed and then boiled in water, creating the drink we enjoy today. Finally, in the seventeenth century coffee arrived in France, Britain and Italy.

 

C. The first coffeehouses opened in Mecca and quickly became popular centres of social and political activity. The government believed that coffee stimulated radical thinking, and the governor even thought it might unite his opposition. As a result, coffee was forbidden in Mecca. The same thing happened in Turkey a century later, when coffee drinkers were severely punished.

 

D. They say, in 1776 the thirteen American colonies adopted coffee as their national drink instead of tea. When the British tried to raise the tax on tea, Americans refused to buy it and switched to coffee. In fact, by drinking coffee Americans demonstrated their political views and their dislike for the British – the famous tea-lovers.

 

E. The Italians drink their espresso with sugar, the Germans and Swiss add an equal part of hot chocolate, the Mexicans prefer it with cinnamon, and the Belgians – with chocolate. Coffee drinkers in the Middle East usually add cardamom and spices. The Egyptians, on the other hand, are extremely fond of pure, strong coffee. They add neither milk nor cream.

 

F. Plain and simple, nothing else. People discovered that if they drank coffee slowly they could taste bitterness, sourness, sweetness and saltiness. For a long time such a taste was new and more than enough. It needed no improvement. Only later did they start experimenting with coffee by adding milk, chocolate, and other flavors. However, nothing can hide the taste of real coffee.

 

G. When the first European coffeehouses opened, they quickly grew into places where people played chess, exchanged gossip, sang and danced. Coffeehouses were very popular because anyone could go and enjoy a cup of the drink. The price of a cup of coffee was reasonable. European coffee houses became meeting points for intellectuals, writers and businessmen.

 

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Источник: ГИА по английскому языку 31.05.2013. Основная волна. Вариант 1307.

8
Задание 9 № 333

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Who supports the runners?

2. How it started?

3. How to be sure of the winners?

4. What to wear for a marathon?

5. What it is like to run a marathon?

6. How to get ready for a marathon?

7. Who runs just for fun?

8. Can the landscape help?

 

A. Many cities in the United States hold marathons. The city of Chicago, Illinois, has its marathon once a year. The running area in Chicago is almost absolutely flat. The scenery is amazingly beautiful. This fact has helped some runners set some of the world’s fastest times there. Many of them hope to go back again.

 

B. Some people know that they have no chance of winning but they participate anyway. They are not officially registered for the race — they just start running with the crowd. These runners are called “bandits.” Many of them finish the race hours after the serious runners but they are happy to cross the finish line anyway.

 

C. An important battle took place in Marathon in Greece more than two thousand years ago. Greece’s army won the battle. A Greek runner was sent to Athens to announce the victory. The man ran for about 40 km at top speed. He announced his message. Then he fell to the ground and died. In memory of the great runner a marathon was included in the Olympic Games.

 

D. Recently, a British writer and journalist, Mario Roter, ran in a marathon. He thought it would be fun to write an article about what people felt during the race. Later he said that running forty-two kilometers was no fun. Many people agree that there is no pleasure in running a marathon, but afterwards it feels great to know that you have done it.

 

E. People usually start training for a marathon in early spring. They run often and gradually increase the length of their runs from eight to twelve and even to twenty kilometers. At this point it is necessary to build up the needed strength. In the months before the race, the average participant runs a total of more than eight hundred kilometers.

 

F. Usually there are lots of runners. The line of people stretches back hundreds of meters. As the winners are awarded prize money it is important to avoid cheating. In order to track all the participants, special chips are used. When the participants register for the marathon, they get their identification number and computer chips. The chips are activated at the start of the race and keep time.

 

G. A marathon is usually a big public event. In the city where the marathon is held hundreds of people give their time and effort to make the race possible. The city police block traffic on the main roads. Some runners thank the officers as they run by. Every few kilometers there are volunteers who offer water to the runners. Lots of people cheer.

 

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Источник: ГИА по ан­глий­ско­му языку 31.05.2013. Ос­нов­ная волна. Ва­ри­ант 1308.

9
Задание 9 № 368

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Our never sleeping part

2. Influence on academic results

3. Advantages of bedtime routine

4. Good sleeping conditions

5. Pre-sleep activities

6. Sleeping classes

7. A negative effect on health

8. The mechanism of dreaming

 

A. Recent research shows that lots of teenagers are suffering from lack of sleep which is causing problems with their behaviour and learning. As a result schools have introduced a new lesson where students are given more of an idea of the importance of sleep. According to medical data, they should get at least nine hours' sleep a night. Young people should realise that sleep is very important if they want to do well at school and enjoy life.

 

B. It’s common knowledge that people sleep best in a dark room that is slightly cool. It's important to close your blinds or curtains and make sure they're heavy enough to block out the light. You can add extra blankets or wear pyjamas if you're cold. Note that an uncomfortable bed, heat and noise can ruin a good night's sleep. A TV is also a distraction.

 

C. If you don’t sleep enough or have a disturbed sleep you can get heart disease, high blood pressure and even diabetes. People who don't sleep enough get colds and flu more often than those who do. Moreover, recent research proves that poor sleepers gain weight more easily than people who sleep well. Extra kilos are the reaction of the body to the stressful sleepless situation.

 

D. Think twice before watching a movie late at night. Don’t spend sleeping time on endless computer games. The thing is that by getting up and going to bed at the same time every day, even on weekends, you teach your body to follow a healthy regime. You'll quickly fall asleep, will have a good night’s sleep and will wake up at the expected time feeling fresh and active.

 

E. Some easy steps can prepare your body for going to sleep. You probably have some regular bedtime habits, even if you don’t realise it. Brushing your teeth, taking a shower, reading a book and setting your alarm clock may all be part of your evening routine. Remember that you should perform these activities in the same manner and in the same order every night.

 

F. Sleepless nights at exam time are very bad for students. If you prepare for your exam late at night, it will not improve your performance during the exam. On the contrary, it will affect your ability to concentrate, to react quickly and to analyse information. Recent research shows that the results of the tests written after sleepless nights are lower than usual grades.

 

G. If you think that during sleep, the brain rests, you're mistaken. It's a common myth about sleep. Sleep is definitely needed – but it's not your brain that needs to rest, it's your body that needs to relax. Your brain is still working when you're asleep, controlling physical functions like breathing and your heart beat. However, because the brain does not have to go through the constant stress of thinking, you get up refreshed and recharged.

 

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Источник: ГИА по английскому языку 31.05.2013. Основная волна. Вариант 1309.

10
Задание 9 № 403

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Good for everyone

5. An innovative idea

2. Easy to care for

6. Working clothes

3. Part of culture

7. Jeans’ labels

4. Screen fashion

8. Clothes to protest

 

A. Jeans are one of fashion's most long enduring trends. Cowboys wear them but so do supermodels, farmers, presidents and housewives. Ask any group of people why they wear jeans and you will get a range of answers. For some they're comfortable and easy — for others they're trendy and cool. Jeans mean different things to different people but they are popular everywhere.

 

B. Americans do not have a national folk dress with a long tradition. Blue jeans are probably the most recognisable article of American clothing. They have been part of American life for over 125 years. Blue denim jeans became not only an expression of American fashion but also an element of American identity known around the world.

 

C. Jeans were first designed as trousers for farmers and miners in the states of the American West. They quickly grew popular with common people, including cowboys, factory employees and railroad builders. The new trousers were made from a very strong material which did not wear out easily. However, at the same time jeans were very practical and comfortable to wear.

 

D. Pockets were the weak point of the miners' clothes — they easily tore away from the jeans. A man called Jacob Davis had the idea of using metal rivets (fasteners) to hold the pockets and the jeans together so that they wouldn't tear. Davis wanted to patent his idea, but he didn't have enough money, so he offered Levi Strauss a deal if Strauss paid for the patent. Strauss accepted and started making jeans.

 

E. By the middle of the twentieth century, these heavy cotton trousers were a symbol of opposition for young artists and writers. College students started to wear them to show they were against the Vietnam War. The new trousers were banned in American schools from coast to coast and sometimes in theatres and cinemas.

 

F. Jeans are good because they don't show the dirt. You can easily go a month without washing them and they don't look shocking. They don't need to be washed as often as other trousers and you don't need to iron them. What's more, because of the strong material you can wear your favorite jeans for years. Even the occasional hole or spot doesn’t spoil them at all.

 

G. In the 30s and 40s many people began to spend their spare time watching movies where adventurous cowboys rode horses, fought bad guys and wore blue jeans. The actors made jeans popular in movies and everyone wanted to wear them. Young people wished to imitate the casual “cowboyish” look they saw in films, and they began to wear jeans as casual wear.

 

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Источник: ГИА по английскому языку 31.05.2013. Основная волна. Вариант 1310.

11
Задание 9 № 438

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. A false stereotype

2. An unlucky symbol

3. A colourful present

4. A world famous journey

5. One and the same name

6. The national food

7. A talisman for luck

8. Old holiday traditions

 

A. When you think of the Irish, you often picture a red-haired person dressed all in green. However, it's just a popular myth which has grown into a tradition, particularly in the United States. It's customary in Ireland to wear green clothes only on St. Patrick's Day. Lots of people are tricked by this cliche. However, originally, the colour associated with Saint Patrick was not green, but blue.

 

B. In Ireland, the colour green was long considered to bring bad fortune. The reason is that in Irish folklore green is the favourite color of the Good People (the proper name for fairies). Myths run that they are likely to steal people, especially children, who wear too much of the colour. In the past, a girl would never wear anything green on her wedding day.

 

C. Christmas is a very important celebration in Ireland. After dinner on Christmas Eve, it is common for families to leave milk and bread on the table as a sign of friendliness and kindness. Another custom is to leave the door unlocked. A lit candle is left in a window during the night. It represents help for any traveller who is passing by.

 

D. Potatoes form the basis for many traditional Irish dishes. They are eaten boiled,mashed, fried, baked, you name it. Potatoes are mixed with cabbage or green onions to make traditional Irish dishes. They are also made into potato cakes and used in soups or stews. It’s common to find potatoes cooked in two different ways on the same dinner plate.

 

E. The shamrock is still a popular sign of good fortune in Ireland. It is believed that anyone who possesses one will be blessed with fortune in everything, even in gambling, and will be saved from the evil of witches. There are certain conditions to be met so that its power remains effective: the owner of the shamrock must keep it away from the public eye and never give it to anyone else.

 

F. The name Gulliver is known to everyone due to the book or the film about the fantastic trip of the English doctor. However, not all of us remember the name of the author — Jonathan Swift, an Irish writer, who was born in Dublin, Ireland, in 1667. In his book Gulliver’s Travels a man went to an island where strange tiny people lived. His life there was full of adventures and dangers, he met there friends and enemies.

 

G. Ireland is known as the native land of limericks — short humorous poems that have five lines. They make people laugh and are easy to remember! Lots of poets and writers were fond of limericks. The word “limerick” probably comes from the Irish town of Limerick. The short poem has made the town known all over the world.

 

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Источник: ГИА по английскому языку 31.05.2013. Основная волна. Вариант 1311.

12
Задание 9 № 473

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Street performers

2. Eating together

3. Important for the whole country

4. Lifting weights

5. Cooking competition

6. Cheese Rolling

7. In memory of the past events

8. A cookery sprint

 

A. A woolsack race is one of the British local festivals that could be called strange. It started in Tetbury, a wool town, in the 17th century when young men wanted to demonstrate their physical strength. Since then, every spring men and women compete in teams to carry heavy woolsacks up and down the hill. The race events are complemented by a funfair and musical entertainments.

 

B. Midsummer is the time for the Cheese Rolling Ceremony in many places. Competitors gather at the top of a hill. The Master of the Ceremonies lets a heavy head of cheese roll down the hill. Brave runners race down to be the first to catch it. Unfortunately, the event was cancelled in 2010 due to safety issues.

 

C. Another cheese ceremony is popular in the village of Randwick. On the first Sunday in May people roll three cheeses from right to left around the church. After rolling, the villagers cut up and share one of the cheeses. They believe that eating cheese brings health to their families.

 

D. The village of Marshfield, England, is famous for its Paperboys procession. People dressed in paper costumes go through the streets. They start from the market place and perform the town’s unique character play along the road. By noon they have done more than six performances for several hundred people.

 

E. Every January Up Helly Aa is celebrated in Scotland. People dressed in Viking costumes and helmets go through the streets of Lerwick. They hold flaming torches, sticks with special material on the top which burns in order to give light. The strongest participants carry a full size model of a Viking ship to an open field. There the people throw lit torches into the ship and burn it.

 

F. Melbourne Cup Day is held in Australia, in November. Although Cup Day is a public holiday only in the city of Melbourne, the rest of the country refuses to be left out of the event. People gather around televisions and computers, whether at work, at home, or wherever they are, just to watch this world famous horse race. This event is often called ‘the race that stops the nation’.

 

G. In a village in Eastern England, an unusual race takes place every year. Three groups take part in the race – adults, children (under 11s) and teenagers. Each participant receives a frying pan with a pancake and has to race from one end of a field to the other, throwing the pancake into the air and catching it in the frying pan without dropping it. The winner is the first to cross the line.

 

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Источник: ГИА по ан­глий­ско­му языку 31.05.2013. Ос­нов­ная волна. Ва­ри­ант 1312.
Пояснение · ·

13
Задание 9 № 508

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. With care for the environment

2. A favourable location

3. Medicine from birds

4. Annual events

5. Names to remember

6. Getting around the town

7. A historical building

8. A green town

 

A. Cheltenham started as a small market town that later became one of the most fashionable health resorts in Britain. Once, in 1716 people noticed pigeons eating crystals in a meadow outside the town. These were crystals of salt which helped King George III and the members of the royal family treat their illnesses. Since then, pigeons have been a symbol of Cheltenham Spa.

 

B. Cheltenham is a small, ancient town in England situated to the north-west of Oxford. It lies below the highest point of the Cotswold Hills and above the level of the River Severn. The town is also called «The Western Gateway». Thanks to its position it has become a popular tourist attraction.

 

C. The Pittville Pump Room is the largest of the spa constructions in Cheltenham. It is a magnificent, old house of classical style made of white stone. The Pump Room was designed for balls and entertainments and, of course, for taking the medicinal waters. Today, it is still used as a concert hall at festival time and for weddings, and of course, visitors can still take the waters – if they so wish!

 

D. Tourism is highly developed in Cheltenham and the City Council has to reduce the negative impact of tourists on the town. A lot has been done. The town has developed walking, cycling and public transport routes as an alternative to cars. There is a pool of bicycles that tourists can use for short distance journeys. The local services try to recycle all the packaging, plastic bottles and batteries left by tourists.

 

E. Many famous people of the past have connections with Cheltenham. Gustav Holst, a well-known English composer of the 19th century, was born in the town. His house is now his birthplace museum. Visitors may learn a lot about Holst's life, his music and his family. The famous Antarctic explorer Edward Wilson was also born in Cheltenham. Now a statue of him stands in the Long Gardens.

 

F. The beauty and wonderful sights of Cheltenham continue to attract visitors from countries all over the world. For many years people have enjoyed the beauty of Cheltenham's parks, open spaces and the general greenery of the town. Cheltenham has been described as ‘a town within a park’. Montpellier place, which is famous for its wonderful flowers, lies in the centre of the town.

 

G. Thousands of visitors come to Cheltenham to take part in the festivals which are held in the town every year. The town organises literature, music, jazz and science festivals, attracting names with a national and international reputation from each field. Besides all this, for a week in March the town becomes the centre of the National Gold Cup in horse racing.

 

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Источник: ГИА по ан­глий­ско­му языку 31.05.2013. Ос­нов­ная волна. Ва­ри­ант 1313.

14
Задание 9 № 543

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. A widely used aroma

2. Makes meals different

3. A relaxing effect

4. Scents and colours

5. Another unique characteristic

6. Holiday scents

7. Creating memories

8. Smelling emotions

 

A. Nothing brings back memories like a particular smell. Whether it's of Christmas pine, your grandma's fresh-baked gingerbread, or cookies, the scents of Christmas are truly special. In the days leading up to this day, the house fills with the wonderful rich, spicy smells of vanilla, cinnamon and ginger coming from the kitchen, promising delights to come.

 

B. Some of the most pleasant scents after a hard day are vanilla, lavender, and scents with cinnamon or ginger. Each combination of aromas can influence you positively. For example, vanilla's sweet scent can help you if you feel sad, lonely, or depressed. It is a naturally warming aroma. Cinnamon is good in case you feel tired; it also has a wonderful effect on your nerves, calming you down.

 

C. The ability to smell is linked to our ability to remember things. When you first smell a new thing, you connect it to an event, a person, or even a moment. As a result, later the smell of cookies might remind you of spending time at your grandmother's house when you were a small child. When you come across the smell a second or third time, the link is already there, ready to bring out a certain mood.

 

D. There are certain smells we can identify from a mile away – almost as if they're preprogrammed into our minds. One of them is vanilla. Today, vanilla is in our coffee, perfumes, tea, home products, body lotion, and everywhere! Both the scent and taste of vanilla are very strong and long-lasting. It is considered one of the most popular scents and flavours in the world.

 

E. A new study suggests that we can smell not only aromas but feelings as well – fear, happiness, disgust and joy. The experiments proved that we can find out how a person feels even if we neither see nor hear him. Nerves inside our nose take informative messages about the person and his emotional state to the brain. However, the mechanism of how this happens is not yet clear.

 

F. Our sense of smell does 80% of the job when we taste various foods. Without a sense of smell you can’t taste the difference between an apple and a potato or a glass of juice and a cup of cold coffee. This is why, when our nose is blocked by a cold, most foods seem tasteless. Our sense of smell becomes stronger when we are hungry.

 

G. There are many good reasons to believe that we all have our own particular smell. Research has proved that our smell might distinguish us from others just as our face does. Our smell is as personal as our fingerprints. For centuries the police have used this phenomenon to catch criminals. Maybe one day they will use our scent too.

 

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Источник: ГИА по ан­глий­ско­му языку 31.05.2013. Ос­нов­ная волна. Ва­ри­ант 1314.

15
Задание 9 № 578

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Historical facts

2. Different reasons for drawing in the street

3. A street art exhibition

4. A commercial effect

5. An innovative method

6. An unknown artist

7. The meaning of the term

8. Keeping their names secret

 

A. Street art can be described as art that is developed in public spaces and above all in the street. It can mean a lot of different things including graffiti, poster art, wall paintings, and just about any artwork that is displayed in public places. Typically, street art is used to separate public-space artwork from illegal graffiti and vandalism.

 

B. The start of street art is closely connected to graffiti, which appeared in New York in the 1970s. The American artists soon became an inspiration for a number of other young street artists all over the world. For the following ten years graffiti grew more and more popular and was soon joined by new forms of street art including street installations, street sculptures and 3D pavement illusions.

 

C. Street artists are often associated with opposition. Their artwork is considered a crime and vandalism and the artists may be arrested for damaging property so the artists prefer to use nicknames and create their drawings mostly at night. They are not looking for fame, especially in countries where graffiti is still illegal.

 

D. Kurt Wenner was the one who developed an absolutely new form of street art. That is 3D pavement art. He started his career as a graphic artist but after moving to Italy he worked on a new technique. Wenner attracted the attention of the entire world with his remarkable 3D artwork and he also inspired a future generation of 3D pavement street artists.

 

E. Banksy is probably the most famous English street artist who has already become a legendary figure. It’s still true that no one knows who the person really is. However, his works are exhibited in galleries across the world. An American magazine even named him among the top most influential people in the world. However, he was the only one whose photo the magazine could not publish.

 

F. The motivations and ideas that inspire street artists are as different as the artists themselves. Some street artists, by creating certain works, want to draw attention to social and political problems. For other artists, street art is just a form of self-expression. And there are those who enjoy the challenge and risks which are connected with working illegally in some city areas.

 

G. Traditional graffiti has recently been used as a successful method for advertising. Lots of companies agree that traditional advertising on city streets is too boring and common so many people simply ignore it. However, graffiti adverts catch your attention, creating a memorable image. Big companies find this quite useful and try to include more elements of graffiti in their advertising campaigns.

 

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Источник: ГИА по ан­глий­ско­му языку 31.05.2013. Ос­нов­ная волна. Ва­ри­ант 1315.

16
Задание 9 № 613

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. A magic journey

2. Freedom of choice

3. A trip around the world

4. An unusual means of transport

5. A family weekend

6. Ideal for beginners

7. An all-inclusive trip

8. Across the continent

 

A. Everyone knows that cycling is a nice and healthy way to travel. It offers you independence. You don't depend on timetables. You can go where and when you want. You can stop at a restaurant when you please, stay in the places you like and leave if you get bored. The world is yours.

 

B. Learn the basics of rock climbing with Cliffs and Ice. It is a perfect choice for those who decide to take up climbing for the first time. After a week in Cornwall you will learn the main skills necessary to become a competent climber. We will give you an experience that you can use in different climbing areas in the UK.

 

C. It is situated close to the Lake District, which is known for picturesque scenery. The ingredients that will help you make an unforgettable winter holiday with your nearest and dearest are: the welcoming fireplaces, delicious food, cosy rooms and different sports facilities. It's perfect for a weekend trip with children. Take the people you love to our delightful hotel in the country.

 

D. A journey through a wild and faraway desert — by camel! This is a wonderful choice for anyone who wants to forget the modern means of travelling. You'll be on top of a camel and part of a desert caravan. Camel drivers will accompany you, providing good company, as you admire the golden sand and the bright blue sky.

 

E. If you take a train tour to the lakes, you'll have nothing to worry about. You will leave London in a comfortable train, travel through the small picturesque towns and into the green hills. There will be no problems with the trip. The price already includes a return ticket, afternoon tea at Linden Hotel, a beautiful lake cruise, a visit to the medieval village and Hill Top, home of a famous English writer.

 

F. The Hogwarts Express plays a big part in the adventures of Harry Potter. A trip to the Scottish Highlands can be your chance to sit in the same carriage and dream about your own trip to the mysterious world. The journey goes through some of Scotland's most splendid scenery. The best part of the journey is when the train crosses the Glenfinnan viaduct, a railway bridge.

 

G. Are you ready for Africa? Say yes and take a Safari Holiday. It is a mystery, wonder and ... adventure! Our safari experts will take you through Africa from east to west. We offer views of dunes, mountain ranges, untouched beaches and open fields. You will see the amazing wildlife and beautiful nature. Let us make your African safari an experience you will never forget!

 

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Источник: Тренировочные ва­ри­ан­ты эк­за­ме­на­ци­он­ных работ по ан­глий­ско­му языку. Н. Н. Трубанёва, Е. Е. Бабушис, Н. А. Спичко — 2013, ва­ри­ант 1.

17
Задание 9 № 648

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Worrying time statistics

2. Hidden dangers

3. New communication opportunities

4. Communication problems in real life

5. Different opinions

6. The best social networking site

7. Time eaters

8. Prospects in education

 

A. The popularity of social networking sites such as Vkon-takte, Facebook, MySpace, and Classmates has risen more than four times from 2005 to 2009. Many users say these sites are good for our society, but others are sure that there are more dangers in them than benefits. Your attitude to such websites depends on your age, job, interests and way of life.

 

B. Social networks promote communication with friends and family, they give people necessary and useful computer skills and teach them to express their ideas in a clear way. Another thing is that the sites let people create new relationships and reconnect with old friends. In every way, more communication, even online, makes connections stronger.

 

C. Social networking sites make people spend more time online and less time communicating face-to-face. The sites have many time-wasting activities. You stay online longer than you planned and do nothing serious or important. Experts say that teenagers spend about nine hours every week on social networking sites.

 

D. A big risk about social networks is that teenagers are careless. They don't worry that their personal information and photos could be open to lots of people. Also the sites don't guarantee that their registered members are who they say they are. If a person says he is James Burns, a college student, we have to believe him. We cannot check his real name or occupation.

 

E. Psychologists say that social networking sites can have serious disadvantages. It is hard for children to have real conversations and make friends. They become selfish personalities and lose interest in real life. Parents spend less time with their children and all members of the family spend less time with each other because they are using the Internet instead of communicating in person.

 

F. Internet users spend most of their time on social networks and blogs. Users in the USA spend about five and a half hours every month on their favourite site. And the number is growing. Russians spend 6.6 hours monthly on social networking sites. It is more than people in any other country. For example, in Europe it is 3.7 hours a month.

 

G. New research shows that social networking sites can be used in schools. Teachers should find ways to use them in class. It would help students to learn how to get information from Internet resources and share it with classmates. Students would also be able to express themselves creatively and present themselves better.

 

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Источник: Тренировочные ва­ри­ан­ты эк­за­ме­на­ци­он­ных работ по ан­глий­ско­му языку. Н. Н. Трубанёва, Е. Е. Бабушис, Н. А. Спичко — 2013, ва­ри­ант 2.

18
Задание 9 № 683

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. A new music instrument

2. The latest fashion

3. A mobile for grandma

4. Phone addiction

5. A strange competition

6. A law against mobiles

7. Back to real-life communication

8. Digital personal assistants

 

A. Young people often worry about the style and functions of mobile phones. However, today companies present more models for people who are over 50 or 60 years old. They need a mobile phone with large buttons, so that they can dial numbers without glasses. The menu is also simple. It really doesn't matter if the phone has a camera or the Internet. For them, less is more.

 

B. Today, when friends meet in a cafe, they put their mobile phones in the middle of the table. They aren't allowed to touch them at all. If someone does it and answers the phone, they have to pay for everybody. Sounds fun, right? The idea is to make people concentrate on a real conversation with each other instead of using their mobiles all the time.

 

C. Visitors of theatres and cinemas often complain that mobile phones ring during performances. The city government of New York passed a new act. It is now forbidden to use mobile phones in places, like theaters, libraries, museums, galleries, and cinemas. Those who don't switch off their mobiles will have to pay $50.

 

D. With mobile phones we can contact anyone, anywhere, any time. Scientists say that some people are so used to mobiles that they can't go to the kitchen without them. They are in panic if they leave them at home or lose. It has become a habit to have a mobile everywhere. People depend on mobile phones so much that doctors have started worrying. They say it may be a thing similar to drugs.

 

E. Throwing mobile phones is an international sport that started in Finland in 2000. Traditionally participants throw mobile phones over their shoulders. The person, who throws farthest, wins. There's also freestyle throwing. In this contest sportsmen should throw a mobile in a beautiful and creative way.

 

F. In 2010, a young girl from China made a song using only her mobile phone. She wrote it without any guitars, pianos, drums. She used different functions of her mobile. It took her several days to record the song. Later she made a video of it and put the video on the Internet, where over a million people watched it. She sent the song to the Apple company and suggested using it in their advertisements.

 

G. Today's mobile phones can already send e-mails, surf the Internet, and keep you in touch with friends. Tomorrow's phones are like helpful secretaries. In a few years you'll see that they know your habits and can advise you what to cook for dinner. They will remind you where to go and what present to buy.

 

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Источник: Тренировочные ва­ри­ан­ты эк­за­ме­на­ци­он­ных работ по ан­глий­ско­му языку. Н. Н. Трубанёва, Е. Е. Бабушис, Н. А. Спичко — 2013, ва­ри­ант 3.

19
Задание 9 № 718

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Learn and play

2. A less popular subject

3. Never too late to learn

4. The essential piece of uniform

5. Keeping the tradition

6. The advantages of learning together

7. Choosing the place to learn

8. School exchange programmes

 

A. Christ's Hospital school was founded in the 16th century. Its uniform at that time consisted of a long blue coat, a leather belt and yellow socks. Today students still wear the same uniform because they think it's a symbol that unites them. There was some talk about making the uniform more modern but it was decided to keep the original uniform.

 

B. Nola Ochs from the USA is the world's oldest university graduate. She says she has always loved learning and has never lost her taste for knowledge. She started university when she was over 90. Her example proves that age is not important if you want to be a student. You can acquire new skills at any age.

 

C. The Dublin College of English offers one, two or three week Football and English Programmes. They are for young people who are interested in both learning English with native speakers and practising football. The students enjoy the friendly, inspiring atmosphere in the classrooms, after which they improve their skills on the school football pitch.

 

D. Harrow is a prestigious boys' school in northern London with a strict uniform policy. You can easily recognise a Harrow student by his hat, which is part of the uniform. All boys have to wear their hats every day when going to or from lessons. Some students are allowed to wear a different scarf, tie or jumper but the hat should always be there. Wearing it remains a must.

 

E. One of the recent trends is the growing number of elderly students in universities and colleges. It is believed that the elderly and the young can benefit from studying in a mixed class. The older ones are quicker at detailed and logical tasks. On the other hand, younger students can often help their older classmates with new gadgets and technologies.

 

F. When it comes to studying English abroad, try to get as much information about the school as possible. Asking the right questions will help you save money, time, and avoid culture shock. Remember that the school should provide you both with good teaching and with an unforgettable experience so besides everyday classes, social activities should be part of the programme.

 

G. In most British schools children start studying a foreign language at 11, but many are happy to give up languages completely at 14. Research suggests that students think that it is more difficult to get good marks in Modern Foreign Languages than in other subjects such as Science or History. They also say that foreign languages are less fun than other lessons like PE or Art.

 

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Источник: ГИА по ан­глий­ско­му языку 31.05.2013. Ос­нов­ная волна. Ва­ри­ант 1316.

20
Задание 9 № 753

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. The scientific explanation

2. The real shape

3. A lucky sign

4. Some tips

5. Places without rainbows

6. A personal vision

7. A bridge between worlds

8. Impossible to catch

 

A. Two people never see the same rainbow. Each person sees a different one. It happens because the raindrops are constantly moving so the rainbow is always changing too. Each time you see a rainbow it is unique and it will never be the same! In addition, everyone sees colours differently according to the light and how their eyes interpret it.

 

B. A rainbow is an optical phenomenon that is seen in the atmosphere. It appears in the sky when the sun’s light is reflected by the raindrops. A rainbow always appears during or immediately after showers when the sun is shining and the air contains raindrops. As a result, a spectrum of colours is seen in the sky. It takes the shape of a multicoloured arc.

 

C. Many cultures see the rainbow as a road, a connection between earth and heaven (the place where God lives). Legends say that it goes below the earth at the horizon and then comes back up again. In this way it makes a permanent link between what is above and below, between life and death. In some myths the rainbow is compared to a staircase connecting earth to heaven.

 

D. We all believe that the rainbow is arch-shaped. The funny thing is that it's actually a circle. The reason we don’t see the other half of the rainbow is because we cannot see below the horizon. However, the higher we are above the ground, the more of the rainbow’s circle we can see. That is why, from an airplane in flight, a rainbow will appear as a complete circle with the shadow of the airplane in the centre.

 

E. In many cultures there is a belief that seeing a rainbow is good. Legends say that if you dig at the end of a rainbow, you'll find a pot of gold. Rainbows are also seen after a storm, showing that the weather is getting better, and there is hope after the storm. This is why they are associated with rescue and good fortune. If people happen to get married on such a day, it is said that they will enjoy a very happy life together.

 

F. You can never reach the end of a rainbow. A rainbow is all light and water. It is always in front of you while your back is to the sun. As you move, the rainbow that your eye sees moves as well and it will always ‘move away’ at the same speed that you are moving. No matter how hard you try, a rainbow will always be as far away from you as it was before you started to move towards it.

 

G. To see a rainbow you have to remember some points. First, you should be standing with the sun behind you. Secondly, the rain should be in front of you. The most impressive rainbows appear when half of the sky is still dark with clouds and the other half is clear. The best time to see a rainbow is on a warm day in the early morning after sunrise or late afternoon before sunset. Rainbows are often seen near waterfalls and fountains.

 

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Источник: ГИА по ан­глий­ско­му языку 31.05.2013. Ос­нов­ная волна. Ва­ри­ант 1317.

21
Задание 9 № 788

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. A convenient food

2. Good for health

3. Part of culture

4. Unclear origins

5. Pasta ingredients

6. A useful invention

7. Classless food

8. An expensive food

 

A. You can enjoy pasta on any budget, and you can have a different and delicious low-cost meal every day of the week. Just serve it with a different sauce. It’s easy to make a healthy meal in minutes that will satisfy your whole family. Pasta tastes good and it's healthy. It also has a long shelf life, so you can keep it in the kitchen cupboard until you need to cook a meal.

 

B. It's rather difficult to find out where pasta comes from. Archeologists believe that cooking noodles was already quite a common practice in Arabic countries in the 5th century AD. At the same time, the Chinese were also making a noodle-like food. The way it reached Europe is still a mystery, though there are many theories – some believe that travelling Arabs from Central Asia were responsible for bringing early forms of pasta to the West.

 

C. Despite its reputation, pasta is a low-calorie dish which is good for you. With only 200 calories per cup and a gram of fat, it is perfect even for those on a strict diet. Pasta is naturally packed with vitamins and necessary minerals so it is heart-healthy as well. Pasta may help people to control their blood sugar and weight so it is recommended as part of a well-balanced diet.

 

D. It seems that pasta was first introduced to Italy in the eighth century. Its ‘home’ was the southern island of Sicily. Prior to its wide use in the 13th century, pasta was considered to be a luxury product in Italy. The reason was that it took a lot of time to make it as all the work was done by hand. By 1400, pasta was sold in shops, but at night a guard was kept to protect the high-priced goods.

 

E. Only in the 16th century did pasta become popular and affordable to all classes of people. In the city of Naples a machine was made that allowed huge quantities of pasta to be produced. It turned pasta into a cheap food. The number of pasta shops in Naples grew to three hundred. From Naples pasta began to conquer the rest of the country.

 

F. By the 17th century, machine-made pasta had become part of the daily meal among both rich and poor. Pasta was sold as street food by people called maccaronaros, who cooked it over an open fire. It was eaten on the spot with bare hands, with no sauce. The wealthy, who did not eat with their hands, preferred fresh pasta with cheeses and meat. With the introduction of the fork, pasta began to be served at special occasions all over Italy.

 

G. When most people talk about pasta, they usually think of Italy and its cooking traditions. The country and its dish have become synonymous. When Italians immigrated to different countries all over the world, they took their pasta with them to each area that they inhabited along with other customs and habits and thus pasta has become the world's favourite food.

 

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Источник: ГИА по ан­глий­ско­му языку 31.05.2013. Ос­нов­ная волна. Ва­ри­ант 1318.

22
Задание 9 № 823

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. A holiday tradition

2. All kinds of entertainment

3. It's a must for any tourist

4. Going back in history

5. A city of contrasts

6. The name meaning

7. The green spots

8. Not for everyone

 

A. The population of London grew in the 17th century. Many houses were built during that period. It was needed after the Great Fire of 1666. In the 19th century the city suffered from pollution and epidemics. The German bombings during World War II destroyed the historical center of London. After the war the city was reconstructed and now it is one of the most beautiful European capitals.

 

B. Each year in December, the people of Norway send a present to Londoners. It is a very big Christmas Tree, which is put in Trafalgar Square. In this way they thank Britain for help during World War II. This tree becomes one of the unforgettable sights of London, especially when it is lit by hundreds of fairy lights. Londoners often group around the tree and sing Christmas songs.

 

C. Trafalgar Square is situated in central London. It is one of the greatest and most famous tourist attractions. Your visit to the capital usually begins with this place. It's absolutely necessary for every tourist to see Nelson's Column. Everyone should admire the lovely fountains of the square. Also, you can't say that you've been to London if you don't take a picture of yourself in the square.

 

D. London was founded by the Romans in the 1st century AD and called Londinium. There is a common theory that the word "Londinium" comes from the name of a Celtic village. Also, the adjective "lond" meant "wild" in the Celtic language. Perhaps, it characterized the river Thames, on which the city was started. So, most scientists think that London is a "village on the wild river".

 

E. In spite of being an important industrial and business centre London is known for its parks and open spaces. In every part of the city, you can find at least one park. It can be just a small pool with surrounding trees or a big and magnificent park like Hyde Park or Regent's Park. They are all loved and visited by Londoners all the year round.

 

F. The liveliest part of London is West End. There are a lot of pubs, clubs, shops, theatres and cafes there. All kinds of pastimes are offered to tourists. Most of them choose shopping in Oxford Street with its stores, boutiques and gift shops. It's a pleasant experience because the choices are great.

 

G. Big Ben is one of London's best-known sights. The name "Big Ben" actually refers not to the clock-tower itself, but to the thirteen ton bell hanging within. The tower is not open to the general public. A tourist from abroad can't visit it. The citizens of the UK are luckier. They can write a letter to a member of Parliament and ask to allow them to tour the clock tower. Usually, the permission is given.

 

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Источник: Тренировочные ва­ри­ан­ты эк­за­ме­на­ци­он­ных работ по ан­глий­ско­му языку. Н. Н. Трубанёва, Е. Е. Бабушис, Н. А. Спич­ко — 2013, ва­ри­ант 4.

23
Задание 9 № 858

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Supporting sports

2. A remarkable container design

3. A universal medicine

4. A smart symbol

5. The drink ingredients

6. Good in any season

7. A fan society

8. The drink varieties

 

A. Coca Cola appeared in Atlanta, Georgia, 1886. Doctor John Pemberton made a special syrup, but he kept its components secret. He added some mineral water to it and took the new product to the chemist's. There the syrup was sold for five cents a glass. Pemberton told everyone that Coca-Cola cured many illnesses, including headaches, stomachaches, and nervous breakdowns.

 

B. Coca Cola was first sold in ordinary bottles. In 1915, the company held a competition to create a new bottle for their drink. They said it should be a bottle that would make Coca Cola different from all other drinks. Even today the shape of Coca Cola bottle is one of the most recognized packages on the planet..."even in the dark!".

 

C. The famous Coca Cola symbol was created by John Pem-berton's colleague, Mr. Robinson. He thought that two letters "C" would look great in advertising. Besides, the red and white colours were simple and effective. Red was energetic and bright and so would attract young people. As for the style, of writing, it was just popular in the United States during that period.

 

D. Before the 1930s, Coca Cola was only considered to be a drink for warm weather so the company started a campaign to remind people that Coca Cola was a great choice in any month. For this a talented artist drew pictures of a happy Santa Claus enjoying a drink of Coke. The pictures were published in magazines and made Cola even more popular.

 

E. Coca Cola was one of the first companies that invested money in public projects. For example, the company is proud to be an old and devoted partner of the Olympic Games. This connection began in 1928 with the Games in Amsterdam. Since then the company has sponsored lots of football, hockey, and basketball competitions.

 

F. The Coca Cola Collectors Club was formed in 1974 by a small group of people. Today it has become international with more than 5,000 people from 28 countries. Club members collect everything connected with Coca Cola: bottles, posters, newspaper articles, postcards — everything. They sometimes meet to exchange their treasures.

 

G. Today there are 16 special variants of the original Coca Cola recipe. Some have less sugar or no sugar at all. Such Coke is chosen by those who want to keep fit. Children may prefer a cherry or a vanilla flavour. The drink also changes from country to country, reflecting national preferences. For example, if you travel to France, you can try the unusual orange Coca Cola.

 

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Источник: Тренировочные ва­ри­ан­ты эк­за­ме­на­ци­он­ных работ по ан­глий­ско­му языку. Н. Н. Трубанёва, Е. Е. Бабушис, Н. А. Спич­ко — 2013, ва­ри­ант 5.

24
Задание 9 № 893

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. How flashmobs are prepared

2. What the performers did

3. Who can join the movement

4. Where the action took place and who took part in it

5. Why flashmob events are arranged

6. What peoples attitude is

7. What a flashmob is

8. What the word means

 

A. It was a nice spring day. The city centre looked busy: cars sped by and people hurried across the square in front of an impressive bank building. There were business people, couriers, tourists and lots of clerks. There were probably too many clerks. And they kept coming from the adjoining streets and side streets. They were young and seemed strikingly similar — all of them were wearing black trousers and white shirts with a little daisy pinned to their black ties.

 

B. All of a sudden the people in office uniform stood still, facing the bank. They paid no attention to other passersby bumping into them. Something weird was going on but nobody could say what exactly was wrong. And... the clerks started to dance. They danced to the music nobody could hear — that looked odd but captivating. The strange performance lasted for only a minute, after which all the black-and-white clerks rearranged their ties and instantly dispersed. The square was spotted with daisies.

 

C. The new phenomenon when lots of people get together in a public place and perform some action is called a flashmob. The participants may dance or perform mock fighting or put up similar umbrellas on a bright cloudless day and pretend they are hiding from the rain or something else. The performance is very brief — it lasts only one or two minutes. Then the flash mobbers disperse, as if nothing has been happening, leaving the passersby surprised and puzzled.

 

D. To surprise and puzzle is probable the main aim of the flash mobbers. It's difficult to find another motivation for their actions which often seem pointless and strange. Unlike demonstrators or protestors, flash mobbers do not demand anything. They don't get violent and they don't normally have any problems with the police, though the latter don't approve of flash mobbers as, in their opinion, crowds are potentially dangerous whatever their intentions are.

 

E. Like the phenomenon itself the word flashmob is very young but it has already been included in all contemporary dictionaries. It is formed with two words: flash, which means a bright light that shines for a short time and then stops shining, and mob — a crowd of people. The two words joined together connote the brisk and striking character of the action performed by those who at first looked like a simple crowd of people.

 

F. It's difficult, however, to call them a simple crowd — flash mobbers are well-organized. The information about the coming flashmob spreads via the internet and mobiles — modern technology like blogs and social nets makes instant information exchange very easy. The place and the time of the coming flash mob event are usually kept secret till the very last moment. The participants are informed by text messages where they should head to and it's amazing how quickly they get together.

 

G. Most people who have witnessed a flashmob say that they felt surprised and puzzled, but when the brief event was over, they started feeling more cheerful and relaxed than before the action. One of probable reasons is that people always welcome some unexpected event that makes their life less monotonous and ordinary. It's important that flash mobbers sustain their positive image and never allow any violent behaviour to spoil it.

 

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Источник: Практикум по ан­глий­ско­му языку. Н. Н. Трубанева, Е. Е. Ба­бу­шис — 2013, ва­ри­ант 1.
Пояснение · ·

25
Задание 9 № 928

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. My accommodation in Rome

2. New friends

3. Getting the job

4. The working day

5. Plans for next summer

6. Language experience

7. The top tourist attraction

8. General impressions of the country

 

A. I've just returned from Italy, and it was the most beautiful working holiday anyone could dream of. Yes, I saw the Colosseum with my own eyes! It was built in the first century AD — the amphitheatre could house as many as 50,000 people. It's difficult to imagine the gladiators fighting there and the public watching the cruel show. There were also fights with lions. Fortunately, there are no lions in the Colosseum now — only cats. And there are a lot of them!

 

B. The Colosseum was the first thing I wanted to see in Rome, but not the only one that impressed me. I used my camera a lot — Italy is a country with a great cultural

heritage. Apart from the views, Italy is a country of delicious food — I've never eaten such gorgeous pizzas! I'd have certainly put on some weight if I hadn't had to walk such a lot — we were saving on transport because Italy is an expensive country.

 

C. It took us thirty-five minutes every morning to get from the hostel where we were staying to the pizzeria we were working. Our room was very small, it had a poor view, just the house opposite, but that wasn't a problem — we didn't spend much time there anyway. We had only the basics in our room — two beds, hangers for clothes, a little table and one chair. There was a laundry downstairs and a shared kitchen to prepare meals.

 

D. As for the kitchen, we didn't use it much — we ate at work! Our working day started at 9 am and lasted till 9 pm. We had a long siesta (a break between two and five in the afternoon) which we used for sightseeing in spite of the heat. And in the evening there were usually lots of customers and we had to be quick and attentive so as not to confuse their orders. We felt absolutely exhausted when we came home.

 

E. Anyway we felt privileged to have got the job. It was Anna, my best friend, who suggested working holidays in Italy. She found the vacancies and sent our CVs to the manager. At first I didn't know what to say as I wasn't sure I wanted to work in summer. But on the other hand, the idea of earning my own money and seeing Italy was very attractive.

 

F. I'm glad I agreed to Anna's suggestion — we enjoyed living in a new country and meeting new people. Italians are very sociable and easy-going. Our fellow workers showed us lots of interesting places and it was fun to explore the country together. Anna and I really hope that they'll come to Britain one day and we'll be able to show them our country too. We are going to keep in touch.

 

G. We didn't know Italian when we went there. Some people in the pizzeria spoke English and they helped us a lot. Two weeks later we were able to understand what the customers were asking us about and we spoke basic Italian to them. Italian is beautiful — I like how it sounds and it's not at all difficult. We plan to go on learning it in case we want to work in the pizzeria again.

 

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Источник: Практикум по ан­глий­ско­му языку. Н. Н. Трубанева, Е. Е. Ба­бу­шис — 2013, ва­ри­ант 2.

26
Задание 9 № 963

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. The parents' decision

2. The students' room

3. The new school

4. Old friends

5. Ambitious plans

6. Location of the school

7. Famous graduates

8. A new learning experience

 

A. Her parents left and Joanna looked around her new place. It was a large room with five beds — and she was sitting on one of them. There were also writing desks, chairs, bedside units and hangers for clothes. Joanna's classmates-to-be were in the classroom — their beds were carefully made, their clothes and personal belongings — in perfect order. From the large windows was a view of a high, brick wall that surrounded the boarding school grounds.

 

B. The poor view was a disappointment — Joanna remembered that the way to the school had been very picturesque. They had driven over green hills and past several country houses before pulling up in front of the old monastery right on the bank of a narrow but fast-flowing river. The approach to the school was lined with tall maple trees. The monastery had been built two or three centuries ago but there were no monks there any more — the old building now housed a prestigious boarding school.

 

C. During the whole trip Joanna hadn't exchanged a word with her parents. She didn't like the idea of learning at a boarding school but her father said there was no other way. He Was quite a prominent statesman. Recently he had been offered a post in another city and couldn't reject it for political reasons. Joanna couldn't go with them as, firstly, there was no appropriate school there and, secondly, he would have to concentrate on the new job. Joanna's mother supported him as she always did.

 

D. Joanna's mother was obsessed with her education. That's why the famous boarding school that offered all kinds of opportunities seemed an ideal option to her. When Joanna had visited the website, she had been impressed, too. The school had a genetic laboratory and an observatory. The computer equipment was state of the art. The teachers were scientists who published their research in serious scientific journals. It was amazing that all that was hidden behind the walls of a medieval monastery!

 

E. Joanna started to unpack her suitcase — jeans, socks, a warm jumper. Then she pulled out a photo. It had been taken in her former school before the Christmas show. Her friends, Linda and Emma, were there setting up the microphones on the stage, Neil was busy with his laptop — he was in charge of the Slide Show performance. Joanna sighed — she wasn't going to see any of them before the summer.

 

F. Joanna left her suitcase and went up to the window. The situation was probably not as bad as it had seemed at first glance. The school could give her career a good start. She'd always dreamt about a career in bio-technology. Joanna believed that human society was about to make some absolutely fantastic discoveries and wanted to participate in the exciting process. A solid education was essential for her, and the school seemed to be the right place to get it.

 

G. She remembered the photos in the school corridor — people in research laboratories, at scientific conferences and even at the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony. At first Joanna thought that it was all about the teachers, but then she realized that those were the former students of the school. There was another surprise — along with scholars, there were photos of a famous film producer and even a Hollywood celebrity. The education the school provided seemed to fit any industry.

 

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Источник: Практикум по ан­глий­ско­му языку. Н. Н. Трубанева, Е. Е. Ба­бу­шис — 2013, ва­ри­ант 3.

27
Задание 9 № 998

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. The career decision

2. Rapid progress and a brilliant career

3. A hard start

4. The special guest

5. His favourite dishes

6. Innovations in management

7. A man of many talents

8. Masterpieces in the kitchen

 

A. An old man entered the restaurant. He looked very much like other people dining there — an elegant suit and noble manners. He could have been a banker or a businessman or even a senator. However, a brief whisper among the waiters indicated that this guest was even more special than the others. It was a great honour to have the grey-haired visitor who was called the king of chefs and the chef of kings.

 

B. The man was Auguste Escoffier. He spent his early years in a small village not far from Nice, went to school and dreamt about becoming a sculptor — he was very good at painting and making wooden and iron figures. However, his father thought that it wouldn't earn his son a living and at the age of thirteen Auguste was told that he would become a cook. The boy left home to take up an apprenticeship with his uncle, who owned a restaurant in Nice.

 

C. Auguste didn't mind his father's decision very much — he liked helping his grandmother in the kitchen. However, the restaurant kitchen was very different from his grandmother's. It was a small room, unbearably hot and stuffy. Lots of dishes were being fried, boiled or stewed at the same time. The people were sweating and swearing and the standards of hygiene were very low, if there were any at all. The cooks were rude to their assistants and punished them for any mistakes.

 

D. Escoffier, however, didn't give up and he was quickly rewarded for his hard Work. At the age of nineteen he was offered a job in a highly reputable Parisian restaurant. At the time of Franko-Prussian War Escoffier served in the army as a Chef and managed to prepare delicious dishes from very basic ingredients. When Escoffier returned to civil life, he became really famous and worked in the most fashionable restaurants of Paris, London and Monte Carlo.

 

E. Escoffier was in the culinary profession for more than sixty years. He wrote several culinary books that are still popular with chefs. In the books one can find detailed instructions on how to make a piece of art in the kitchen. He created lots of new salads, meat and fish dishes, sauces and desserts. One of Escoffier's most famous desserts is probably Peach Melba, a dish that he created specially for the opera singer Nellie Melba, who dined in his restaurant.

 

F. Escoffier made French Cuisine famous worldwide. Apart from creating new dishes he changed cooking techniques, the order of serving dishes and kitchen organization. Escoffier introduced the brigade system — each member was responsible for particular operations and the chef supervised the whole process. Escoffier's kitchens were spotlessly clean, his staff were efficient and polite, swearing and drinking was absolutely prohibited. He turned cooking into art.

 

G. As with any outstanding person, Auguste Escoffier was gifted in many other ways. The famous Sarah Bernhardt liked his paintings and reproached him for burying the talent of an artist. Cesar Ritz, the founder of the Hotel Ritz in Paris and London, highly valued Escoffier as a businessman. They had worked together in Baden-Baden, Paris, London and Monte Carlo.

 

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Источник: Практикум по ан­глий­ско­му языку. Н. Н. Трубанева, Е. Е. Ба­бу­шис — 2013, ва­ри­ант 4.

28
Задание 9 № 1033

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. A new language was born

2. It's difficult to communicate across the centuries

3. English is a pass to the world community

4. English was taught by armies and politicians

5. What comes to life — comes to the language

6. The oldest English words are not at all English

7. Modern English has many faces

8. Who'll be speaking English in the next century

 

A. The Celts, who lived on the current territory of Britain in 500BC — 43BC, are believed to be the first inhabitants of the British Isles. The Celtic vocabulary was almost wiped out but a few words, mainly the names of places, survived. The two most well-known British place names — London and the Thames — are of Celtic origin. The Romans, who invaded the Isles in 43BC, contributed to the language too. We still use some of their words, such as candle and wine.

 

B. However, most scholars believe that the history of the English language starts from the 5th or 6th century AD, when Germanic tribes — Angles, Saxons and Jutes started to arrive in the Isles. The settlers spoke a' Germanic language which is now called Old English. A considerable part of their vocabulary has survived up to now. We still use words like house, food, dog, night, think and sleep and lots of other basic words.

 

C. Though almost all of the words from the list of 100 most commonly used English words originate from Old English, the latter and Modern English differ from each other like two separate languages. Even for well-educated people, including most scholars and linguists, reading Old English texts in the original is a problem — the language has changed out of recognition over fifteen centuries.

 

D. It keeps changing nowadays too and the process is getting more and more rapid due to globalization and technological progress. The vocabulary is constantly acquiring new words like website and computer geek. The words transfer easily from one language to another. There's no need to translate Italian words like pizzeria and cappuccino or the Japanese sudoku and karaoke, is there? They are used just like the original word and don't sound at all foreign to the new generation.

 

E. It's difficult to believe that only about two million people used English a thousand years ago. However, the English actively and sometimes aggressively explored the world spreading their empire and their language around the globe. Due to colonization and overseas trade English became widely spoken in all continents and only Mandarin Chinese speakers outnumber English speakers.

 

F. English is most often taught as a foreign language and the reason is obvious: it's become the main language of international and cross-cultural communication — it is the language of science, business and politics. The vast majority of scientific articles, business reports and political documents are written in English though their authors do not necessarily live in English-speaking countries.

 

G. Spoken in different parts of the globe, English is certainly not the same everywhere. It may sound and be spelt differently; it may differ in vocabulary and grammar. The variants of English are called dialects and accents. There is British, American, Canadian and Australian English, Cockney and Geordie as well as many kinds of pidgin English. So called Standard English is far from Shakespeare's language too. It has been seriously standardised and simplified for international use.

 

ТекстABCDEFG
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Источник: Практикум по ан­глий­ско­му языку. Н. Н. Трубанева, Е. Е. Ба­бу­шис — 2013, ва­ри­ант 5.

29
Задание 9 № 1068

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Is there any risk-free alternative to tattoo?

2. What equipment is used?

3. What are the motives for getting a tattoo?

4. What is tattoo ink made from?

5. Is getting a tattoo dangerous?

6. What are the most popular tattoo designs?

7. How old is the tattooing tradition?

8. Can tattoos be removed?

 

A. Tattoos are surprisingly popular in different parts of the globe. The oldest tattooed person, the so-called Iceman, is a frozen mummy found in the Alps in 1991. The frozen man, aged more than 5000 years, has 57 tattoos! The scientists think that they were created with some sharp instruments like thorns, and ash from fireplace was used instead of ink. There's also a theory that Iceman's tattoos were made for medical reasons rather than for any other, reason.

 

B. Medical tattoos mark the places where acupuncture needles need to be used, however, that reason for getting a tattoo is rare. Tattooing for religious and spiritual reasons happens much more often. Soldiers and sailors get tattoos in memory of their battles and journeys. Some people tattoo the names of those they love, and some get tattoos for no reason at all, just because they think it's cool.

 

C. There are lots of tattooing techniques. Some tribes in Africa make cuts on the body and rub ash into them. Tattooists may also work with sharpened sticks or animal bones — the procedure is painful and not at all hygienic. In modern studios electric machines are usually used. They have one or more needles that quickly go in and out of the skin. The machine has ink containers and the ink gets into the skin via the needles. For safety reasons the needles should only be used once.

 

D. In the past, tattoo ink was made from tree bark, ash and coal dust. Later, pen ink was often used. Today, the inks produced by factories are usually made of metal salts and metal oxides. Heavy metals are used for colouring too: cadmium gives red and orange shades, aluminum — green and violet, cobalt — blue, titanium — white. There's no need to say that heavy metals may cause allergies and some far more serious diseases, cancer included.

 

E. Parents may get outraged by their children's desire for tattoos and they've got good reasons to get panicky  — apart from ink related risks, getting tattoos is associated with the risk of infection. Anything from skin infections to tuberculosis and even AIDS can be transmitted via the instruments. If the tattooist ignores strict hygienic requirements, like using fresh ink for each session, changing gloves after each stage of tattooing or disinfecting the furniture, the client may catch a very serious disease.

 

F. Another reason against permanent tattoos is... their permanent character. You may like it now but people tend to change their preferences. A safe alternative is a temporary tattoo which lasts for only a few weeks. Their main advantage is that the skin is not damaged — the tattoo artist just applies henna on it. This type of tattoos is popular with fashion models who care for their bodies and don't want them to get damaged.

 

G. The actress Amy Taylor says that she got her tattoo when she was sixteen. She thought it was cool, but several years later the tattoo became a nuisance. Amy wanted to get it removed. She believed that modern technologies like laser treatment could do it easily but the doctors warned her that the tattoo wouldn't be fully removed anyway. The treatment is usually long, expensive and rather painful — getting the tattoo is much easier.

 

ТекстABCDEFG
Заголовок                                                        
Источник: Практикум по ан­глий­ско­му языку. Н. Н. Трубанева, Е. Е. Ба­бу­шис — 2013, ва­ри­ант 6.

30
Задание 9 № 1103

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. The history of the name

2. Pumpkin: brief facts

3. Cooking with pumpkin

4. The autumn celebrity fruit

5. Pumpkin recipes

6. Pumpkin’s magical popularity

7. Growing a pumpkin

8. Pumpkin in the learning process

 

A. The pumpkin is a large round fruit with a thick orange skin and large seeds. Pumpkins are 90% water but they contain potassium and vitamin A. Six of seven continents can grow pumpkins. Pumpkins symbolize the colours and the spirit of the autumn. Lots of movies were made with pumpkin and Halloween themes.

 

B. It's believed that pumpkins come from North America. Native American Indians ate pumpkins for centuries before the Europeans discovered the fruit. In European languages the word ''pumpkin'' originated from the Greek word for "large melon" which is "pepon." "Pepon" was changed by the French into "pompon." The English changed "pompon" to "pumpion."

 

C. In the United States, pumpkins go hand in hand with the autumn holidays of Thanksgiving and Halloween. On almost every Thanksgiving table there is the customary Pumpkin Pie. Pumpkins are carved into decorated lanterns for Halloween. The pumpkin is also one of the important symbols of the harvest festivals and has been an American favourite for over 400 years now.

 

D. In the USA, the pumpkin is a very popular Thanksgiving dish. We don't know for sure whether the pumpkin was at the very first Thanksgiving dinner but it was used in all traditional meals long before the arrival of the Europeans. Most parts of the pumpkin are suitable for eating, including the shell, the seeds, the leaves, and even the flowers. When ripe, the pumpkin can be boiled, baked, steamed or roasted.

 

E. The pumpkin is a warm-season fruit. If you want to have a nice pumpkin for Halloween, plant the seeds from late May in northern regions to early July in southern regions. Pumpkins can be harvested whenever they are a deep, solid colour (orange for most varieties) and the coat is hard. Cut off pumpkins carefully and leave 3 to 4 inches of stem attached.

 

F. The pumpkin is a real October icon – the fruit of the month. It's also popular as an available, inexpensive material for some wonderful classroom activities! Its size, colour, smell and taste make it perfect for observation and exploration. Working in groups students can search, suggest, predict and estimate the number of seeds in a set of pumpkins.

 

G. For centuries the pumpkin has been popular with wizards, witches and fairies. Maybe that’s why it is celebrated in so many festivals, folklore and fiction. People make jack-o'-lanterns at Halloween in the USA. In European and American fairy-tales witches often turn people into pumpkins. Even in modern the Harry Potter novels pumpkin juice is the favourite drink of the students of Hogwart’s school.

 

ТекстABCDEFG
Заголовок                                                        
Источник: Демонстрационная версия ГИА—2013 по английскому языку.

31
Задание 9 № 1147

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. The scientific explanation

2. The real shape

3. A lucky sign

4. Some tips

5. Places without rainbows

6. A personal vision

7. A bridge between worlds

8. Impossible to catch

 

A. Two people never see the same rainbow. Each person sees a different one. It happens because the raindrops are constantly moving so the rainbow is always changing too. Each time you see a rainbowit is unique and it will never be the same! In addition, everyone sees colours differently according to the light and how their eyes interpret it.

 

B. A rainbow is an optical phenomenon that isseen in the atmosphere. It appears in the sky when the sun’s light is reflected by the raindrops. A rainbow always appears during or immediately after showers when the sun is shining and the air contains raindrops. As a result, a spectrum of colours is seen in the sky. It takes the shape of a multicoloured arc.

 

C. Many cultures see the rainbow as a road, a connection between earth and heaven (the place where God lives). Legends say that it goes below the earth at the horizon and then comes back up again. In this way it makes a permanent link between what is above and below, between life and death. In some myths the rainbow is compared to a staircase connecting earth to heaven.

 

D. We all believe that the rainbow is arch-shaped. The funny thing is that it's actually a circle. The reason we don’t see the other half of the rainbow is because we cannot see below the horizon. However, the higher we are above the ground, the more of the rainbow’s circle we can see. That is why, from an airplane in flight, a rainbow will appear as a complete circlewith the shadow of the airplane in the centre.

 

E. In many cultures there is a belief thatseeing a rainbow is good. Legends say that if you dig at the end of a rainbow, you'll find a pot of gold. Rainbows are also seen after a storm, showing that the weather is getting better, and there is hope after the storm. This is why theyare associated with rescue and good fortune. If people happen to get married on such a day, it is said that they will enjoy a very happy life together

 

F. You can never reach the end of a rainbow. A rainbow is all light and water. It is always in front of you while your back is to the sun. As you move, the rainbow that your eye sees moves as well and itwill always ‘move away’ at the same speed that you are moving. No matter how hard you try, a rainbow will always be as far away from you as it was before you started to move towards it.

 

G. To see a rainbow you have to remembersome points. First, you should be standing with the sun behind you. Secondly, the rain should be in front of you. The most impressive rainbows appear whenhalf of the sky is still dark with clouds and the other half is clear. The best time to see a rainbow is on a warm day in the early morning after sunrise orlate afternoon before sunset. Rainbows are often seen near waterfalls and fountains.

 

ТекстABCDEFG
Заголовок                                                        
Источник: Демонстрационная версия ГИА—2014 по английскому языку.

32
Задание 9 № 1182

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Residents of the North Pole

2. Born to live in cold weather

3. Life is getting harder

4. Sometimes they are similar to us

5. Hunting strategies

6. Home upbringing for bears

7. Changes in population

8. Good food is important

 

 

A. Polar bears started to evolve from brown bears about 5 million years ago. Unlike bears living on land, they are white in colour and their fur is very thick. It helps them to survive on sea ice and swim in cold waters. Polar bears are really big — adult males normally weigh from 350 to 550 kg. Females are smaller. The bears’ large paws distribute their weight when they move on thin ice, and their tails are short to conserve heat.

 

B. Polar bears occupy one of the planet's coldest environments, the Arctic. They prefer northern areas like Canada, Greenland, Alaska, Russia and Norway. Scientists have identified 19 populations of polar bears spread across four different regions of the Arctic. Although many children’s books show polar bears and penguins together, the two are found at different poles.

 

C. These Arctic giants have no natural enemies. Their diet is based on seals. Other sources of food for polar bears are Arctic plants, and also geese, bird eggs and fish. They can eat a wide range of foods but only marine mammals, like seals and beluga whales, are able to provide them with all the necessary proteins and vitamins to survive in the icy environment.

 

D. Bears catch seals from ice platforms. They usually wait for seals near their breathing holes — the openings in the ice the seals use to breathe. In autumn, seals cut out breathing holes in the ice and keep them through the winter and polar bears locate the holes with their powerful sense of smell. Polar bears can also attack seals sleeping on the ice.

 

E. Polar bears spend lots of time hunting seals on sea ice or from large drifting blocks of ice. However, due to global warming sea ice is melting. As a result, bears have to hunt in the water, which is less successful and very risky. Polar bears are good swimmers but they cannot swim long distances and often drown. They don’t have enough food to gain enough fat and their newborn cubs are weaker than they used to be.

F. Normally, a female bear builds a den (a tunnel in the ice with two rooms) where she gives birth to two cubs. They are born very small, only about half a kilo, but they grow quickly on their mother’s rich milk. For about two years, cubs depend totally on their mothers for food and for survival skills — the mothers teach them how to hunt and survive in the harsh realities of life.

 

G. Native people, who have lived side by side with polar bears for centuries, say that in many ways bears are like humans. When they are not busy hunting, they play, mock fight or chase each other. Their nose-to-nose greeting usually means some request, for example, a request for food. Some scientists claim they have watched polar bears sharing their food and even performing some eating rituals like greeting their host and saying thank you after a meal.

 

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33
Задание 9 № 1217

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

 

1. International space teams

2. A new kind of tourism

3. What to wear in space

4. Space station equipment

5. The problem with closed spaces

6. Down-to-Earth training for space

7. Early space projects

8. Space garbage

 

A. People have always dreamt about space travel and space discoveries. For the first time the dream came true when the unmanned satellite Sputnik was launched and scientists got the first photos of the Earth from outer space. However, the real breakthrough happened in 1961 when the first human, Yuri Gagarin, left our planet on the spacecraft Vostok and completed a full Earth orbit.

 

B. Since then lots of people have volunteered for space missions but few are able to meet the strict requirements for candidates. Still on the Earth, the future astronauts do tests in simulated environments and solve problems they are supposed to face during the flight. They get ready physically and psychologically for different situations. They also practise how to operate the complicated space equipment and what to do in an emergency.

 

C. Even wearing a spacesuit requires special skills. The main idea of the suit is to keep the person alive in outer space, during launch and landing, when the pressure on the body increases dramatically, or inside the space station, if something goes wrong. The suit is made from hard materials, contains its own oxygen supply and has lots of smart devices monitoring the condition of the astronaut.

 

D. Obviously, no device can completely eliminate the risk of space travel — it will always be a dangerous activity, but it attracts people anyway. They are ready to pay big money for an out-of-this-world experience and the number of such people is constantly increasing. There are already business projects for space tours and designs for space stations stuffed with equipment for entertainment instead of scientific experiments.

 

E. Not everyone supports the idea of idle space tourists, and there are reasons for this. Apart from unnecessary risk, it can add to the problem of space pollution. People have only started going into orbit very recently but they have already managed to leave lots of evidence of their existence there — parts of old spacecraft and satellites are circling the Earth. Scientists say that if this increases, it may cause serious problems and dangerous situations.

 

F. Nowadays, countries find it useful to combine their efforts when carrying out space exploration projects. The best engineers from all over the world participate in designing crafts and equipment, and astronauts working on the space station may be of different nationalities and backgrounds. Theoretically speaking, it might cause some misunderstanding and culture clashes, but in practice this never happens.

 

G. Long space missions, however, are going to be a great challenge to the flight team whatever nationality they are. The astronauts will have to communicate only with each other and there will be no opportunity to escape unpleasant people. Psychologists believe that stress is a serious risk factor for the planned expedition to Mars.

 

ТекстABCDEFG
Заголовок                                                        

34
Задание 9 № 1252

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. A risky place to live in

2. In the past

3. Night guards

4. The miracle of water

5. United but varied

6. An important food producer

7. A dream state

8. Attractive to IT specialists

 

A. The United States is so big that there are six time zones. If you want to phone from Washington to Hawaii or central Alaska, there is a six-hour time difference. The geography and climate of the United States are extremely diverse. While people go to the beach in Florida, California and Hawaii, others, in Alaska and the Midwest, are wearing thick coats and trying to keep warm.

 

B. California seems to have everything – a beautiful coastline on the Pacific with beaches and a warm climate, rocky national parks and amazing skiing and snowboarding opportunities. Its largest cities, San Francisco, Los Angeles, and the state capital, Sacramento, offer cultural variety and excitement. Southern California is home to such popular attractions as Disneyland and Hollywood.

 

C. There are many reasons for Americans to move to California, but there are also reasons to stay away. Some people say it’s a great place to visit, but they wouldn’t want to live there. In recent years, there has been drought followed by flooding and thousands of people have become homeless, and the crops were ruined. Frequent forest fires have burnt the land and destroyed people’s homes.

 

D. California produces more farming products than any other American state. All kinds of fruit and vegetables grow well in the moderate climate. It is especially known for its avocados and grapes. California is not technically a "breadbasket" and it is not a top five American producer of any grain product, but it is, surprisingly, the nation's largest dairy provider.

 

E. The most famous children’s attraction in the world is in California. Disneyland occupies 85 acres, and lots of people are busy keeping it in order. Аnd not only people. After the park closes, an army of four-legged “workers” go out to do their job. It’s not common knowledge that Disneyland “employs” 200 wild cats that roam the grounds after sunset. Their job is to keep rats and mice away from the park. And during daylight hours the cats have a rest, hiding on the territory.

 

F. It is the hottest place on Earth. Yet here you can find dry lands and snowcovered peaks, beautiful sand dunes and rocky canyons. For five months of the year there is severe heat in Death Valley, and for the next seven the temperature goes down slightly. Rain rarely gets past the mountains that guard the valley. However, even this small amount of rain turns the desert into a vast colourful garden. Despite the high temperature, more than 1000 kinds of plants live within the valley.

 

G. South of San Francisco is Santa Clara Valley. It is famous because it has so many companies that specialize in computer technology. In fact the valley is better known as Silicon Valley, named after the material that computer chips are made of. There are also many research centers for computer hardware and software. Thousands of people from the US and abroad have moved to California to work in the computer industry.

 

ТекстABCDEFG
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35
Задание 9 № 1287

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Popular snack invention

2. Getting round the world

3. A new favourite in the East

4. Travelling outside the Earth

5. Events in honour of the vegetable

6. Vegetable language

7. Recipes to cook the vegetable

8. New and frightening

 

 

A. From Spain, potatoes spread to all parts of Europe. Spanish ships carried the vegetable to Italy in around 1560, making that country the first after Spain to eat potatoes. A bit later, the potato reached Austria and France, England and Germany, Portugal and Ireland. The potato was introduced to India, possibly as early as 1615, and then reached the most remote parts of China. In 1792 Captain William Bligh planted the first potatoes in Australia.

 

B. It is not unusual for new foods to be met with skepticism and fear, especially those arriving from a faraway continent. The potato, however, had a harder battle for acceptance than many other vegetables from the Americas. People didn’t like its unusual, ugly appearance and originally bitter taste. Besides, the potato was not mentioned in the Bible and it was often associated with the devil.

 

C. In the United States, the potato has found its way into pop culture and has been used in lots of idiomatic phrases. A couch potato, for example, means an inactive person; hot potato indicates a dangerous topic; small potatoes refers to something that is not a big deal; meat and potatoes means simple food. Calling someone a potato head is not a compliment because it means someone who is not very clever.

 

D. In 1853, that typically American product, the potato chip, was invented by pure accident. Annoyed when the guest of the restaurant sent back his fried potatoes because they were too thick, George Crum, the chef, thought he would teach him a lesson. He sliced some potatoes paper thin, deep-fried, and salted them. The guest loved them. However, potato chips began to be commercially manufactured only in 1915.

 

E. Potatoes are still making history. In October 1995, the potato became the first vegetable to be grown in space. NASA created the technology with the goal of feeding astronauts on long space voyages and, eventually, feeding future space colonies. The environmentally friendly potato was chosen due to its ability to grow under different conditions.

 

F. Potato festivals are very popular in the United States. They are held in autumn to celebrate farmers and the potato. During the festivals adults and children take part in fun parades and carnivals, taste new potato dishes, learn about growing potatoes, and join in some fun potato competitions. There are usually huge firework displays in the evening.

 

G. According to the United Nations report the annual diet of an average citizen in the beginning of the 21st century included about 33 kg of potatoes. However, the local importance of the potato is extremely variable. It remains an essential vegetable in Europe, but the most rapid increase has occurred in southern and eastern Asia. Nearly a third of the world's potatoes are harvested in China and India nowadays.

 

ТекстABCDEFG
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36
Задание 9 № 1322

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. The scientific explanation

2. The real shape

3. A lucky sign

4. Some tips

5. Places without rainbows

6. A personal vision

7. A bridge between worlds

8. Impossible to catch

 

 

A. Two people never see the same rainbow. Each person sees a different one. It happens because the raindrops are constantly moving so the rainbow is always changing too. Each time you see a rainbow it is unique and it will never be the same! In addition, everyone sees colours differently according to the light and how their eyes interpret it.

 

B. A rainbow is an optical phenomenon that is seen in the atmosphere. It appears in the sky when the sun’s light is reflected by the raindrops. A rainbow always appears during or immediately after showers when the sun is shining and the air contains raindrops. As a result, a spectrum of colours is seen in the sky. It takes the shape of a multicoloured arc.

 

C. Many cultures see the rainbow as a road, a connection between earth and heaven (the place where God lives). Legends say that it goes below the earth at the horizon and then comes back up again. In this way it makes a permanent link between what is above and below, between life and death. In some myths the rainbow is compared to a staircase connecting earth to heaven.

 

D. We all believe that the rainbow is arch-shaped. The funny thing is that it's actually a circle. The reason we don’t see the other half of the rainbow is because we cannot see below the horizon. However, the higher we are above the ground, the more of the rainbow’s circle we can see. That is why, from an airplane in flight, a rainbow will appear as a complete circle with the shadow of the airplane in the centre.

 

E. In many cultures there is a belief that seeing a rainbow is good. Legends say that if you dig at the end of a rainbow, you'll find a pot of gold. Rainbows are also seen after a storm, showing that the weather is getting better, and there is hope after the storm. This is why they are associated with rescue and good fortune. If people happen to get married on such a day, it is said that they will enjoy a very happy life together.

 

F. You can never reach the end of a rainbow. A rainbow is all light and water. It is always in front of you while your back is to the sun. As you move, the rainbow that your eye sees moves as well and it will always ‘move away’ at the same speed that you are moving. No matter how hard you try, a rainbow will always be as far away from you as it was before you started to move towards it.

 

G. To see a rainbow you have to remember some points. First, you should be standing with the sun behind you. Secondly, the rain should be in front of you. The most impressive rainbows appear when half of the sky is still dark with clouds and the other half is clear. The best time to see a rainbow is on a warm day in the early morning after sunrise or late afternoon before sunset. Rainbows are often seen near waterfalls and fountains.

 

ТекстABCDEFG
Заголовок                                                        
Источник: Де­мон­стра­ци­он­ная вер­сия ОГЭ—2018 по английскому языку., Демонстрационная вер­сия ГИА—2015.

37
Задание 9 № 1368

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Architectural heritage

2. The mystery of the name

3. The district of crafts

4. The souvenir street

5. Similar yet different

6. Literary landmarks

7. A fashionable place to live in

8. An open-air studio

 

 

A. Arbat Street is one of the most famous pedestrian streets in the historic centre of Moscow. In the 17th century the area was popular with carpenters, silversmiths, bakers and skilled people of other trades. They lived there and ran their businesses — there were lots of workshops and small stores on the ground floors of the houses. Nowadays, the Arbat's side streets show evidence of their past with names that describe various trades or products.

 

B. In the 18th century the Arbat became popular with Moscow's upper class, who enjoyed walking there and visiting the local cafés. There were hardly any workshops there then. The Arbat became a popular residential area that attracted Moscow nobility. The whole street was built up with private residences of wealthy Russian families – the Dolgorukiys, the Golitsins, the Tolstoys, the Sheremetyevs and others. It became the most stylish and desirable place to live.

 

C. Famous poets, thinkers, musicians and actors contributed to the Arbat’s charm. Alexander Pushkin and his wife lived there, in house number 53. Later the mansion was turned into a museum. One of the houses on the adjoining lane belonged to Leo Tolstoy. Over a century later, Bulat Okudzhava, the famous poet and bard, lived in house number 43. Today his statue stands on the corner of the side street.

 

D. The name Arbat does not sound like a Russian word and actually the original meaning of the place name is unknown. There are several hypotheses. Some linguists state that the name comes from the Arabic word meaning 'suburb' or

'outskirts'. Another hypothesis links the word Arbat with the Tatar word arba, i.e. "cart". However, both theories are disputed.

 

E. Until the middle of the 20th century, the Arbat remained a part оf the main road frоm the Moscow Kremlin westwards. Іn the 1960s, а parallel road, the New Arbat was built, аnd the traffic was rerouted. The New Arbat, wіth іts wide sidewalks, has nо side streets, which was more convenient for drivers and safer for pedestrians. Twо decades later, the New Arbat took all the traffic and the Arbat wаs made іntо the fіrst pedestrian zone іn Moscow. Іn order tо avoid confusion wіth the New Arbat, people began tо refer tо the Arbat аs the Old Arbat.

 

F. To tourists, the area of the Arbat is a nice combination of cosy little side streets with the buildings representing different epochs. There, one can find an unusual looking house in the shape of two interlocking cylinders with more than 60 six-sided windows. It was built as an experimental house by the Soviet architect Konstantin Melnikov, a famous representative of Constructivism.

 

G. At both ends of the street, you'll often see artists sketching portraits. There's no need to go into a workshop – just choose an artist and take a seat. The artists have all they need at hand. Anyone can have a charcoal portrait of themselves or a caricature drawn. There's no fixed price for the work — you can bargain.

 

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38
Задание 9 № 1403

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Easy to cook

2. A healthy alternative

3. Coffee shop brownie

4. What the dish is like

5. Serving ideas

6. Created by chance

7. Health risks

8. National dessert

 

 

A. Warm, freshly baked chocolate brownies are an American invention. Brownies are flat, and baked in a square or bar shape. They are neither cakes nor cookies, but somewhere in between. They can be eaten by hand if the brownies are dry

and small. Or you can use a fork if your brownie is thick and moist. Anyway, there is no special etiquette, so there’s no need to care about your table manners!

 

B. Mystery and intrigue surround the birth of brownies. It is hard to reconstruct their true story as there are different legends about the creation of the famous dessert. Some people say that once a chef added melted chocolate to the biscuit dough by mistake. Others believe that a housewife just improvised to make a new dish. However, all these tales may be very far from the truth.

 

C. We all agree that brownies are yummy. And you do not have to be a professional cook to make them. All you need to do is to mix all the ingredients, pour the mixture into a pan and bake it for about half an hour. If you prefer softer brownies, cook for twenty minutes. Now, take them out of the oven and let them cool until slightly warm. Cut into squares. Enjoy the brownies with your tea, milk, or coffee!

 

D. Brownies look harmless, but they are not. They are high in calories, fat and sugar, and can have a negative impact on your overall health if you eat brownies on a regular basis. Eating too many of them may lead to putting on weight and cause your sugar level to rise. This may result in diabetes. Besides, too much sugar can also increase the chance of developing heart disease. Take care!

 

E. A regular brownie should be a special treat and not an everyday meal. The easiest way to avoid the brownies' harmful aspects is to redesign the recipe and use other ingredients. It is recommended to replace some or all of the oil in a

traditional recipe with puréed fruit, such as bananas, apples or prunes, and reduce the amount of sugar and salt. Nuts or seeds can be added.

 

F. Brownies are probably the best-known American dessert. They're like puddings for the British and tiramisu for the Italians. Brownies represent a truly American experience. We say 'as American as apple pie', but some people think the saying should be 'as American as a brownie'. And, each year on December 8, brownie lovers across the nation celebrate Brownie Day.

 

G. Traditional rich, dark, chocolaty brownies are loved by everyone. If you want to surprise your guests use some ingredients to decorate the finished product with style. Whipped cream, fruit and nuts work really well. A scoop of ice cream and some warm chocolate sauce also make your brownies irresistible. Then, take a fresh mint leaf and add it to your plate. This final touch adds style and flavour.

 

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39
Задание 9 № 1699

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Gastronomic delights

2. The fate of the indigenous people

3. Dead or alive?

4. Fauna and wildlife

5. At the edge of the world

6. Main industries

7. The best time to visit

8. Climate and weather

 

 

A. Most Europeans consider Australia the most mysterious and dangerous continent. It is in the Southern hemisphere and everything is upside down there. Moreover, Australia is awfully far away and it looks like an isolated world. But there is a place that feels even further. It’s the Isle of Tasmania which is 240 km to the south of the Australian mainland. It used to be part of the continent but was separated from it about 10,000 years ago, at the end of the last glacial period.

 

B. The soils of the island are not rich and the Tasmanians have to do their best to grow their crops there. The place however is good for growing sheep. Apart from agriculture, Tasmanians have always been involved in mining, forestry, and tourism. The island is rich in copper, zinc, tin, iron and other raw materials. In spite of all the human activity, it is still densely forested, and the wood is one of their export products as well as seafood and different agricultural products. Despite the remoteness, Tasmania is a popular tourist destination and the tourism and hospitality sector gives jobs to many people there.

 

C. Tourist agencies define December and January as high season on Tasmania. It is summer time in the Southern Hemisphere and the weather is comfortable for exploring the island. Though the average maximum daily summer temperatures are between 17 and 23 degrees Celsius, the beaches attract holidaymakers too. The summer is also a time of different festivals and there are crowds at most popular destinations. To avoid disappointment it is highly recommended to book tickets and hotels well in advance.

 

D. Tasmania is the southernmost state and its cool climate is good for growing crops and producing all sorts of fine foods. It is sometimes called Apple Isle as apples were the first crops cultivated by European settlers. But there is much more there now than apples! Various kinds of classic cheese are made on the island – with garlic, chilli, and with aromatic notes of the local pine wood. Another thing any tourist should try is the local honey which has a wide range of tastes due to the great range of flowers growing there.

 

E.The diversity of Tasmania's vegetation is really remarkable! Apart from a great variety of wild flowers, you will find there some of the most ancient plant species on Earth, the tallest flowering trees, and the oldest trees. In the woods the tourists have a good chance to encounter the most exotic animals like wombats, pademelons and even Tasmanian devils. The Tasmanian devil looks like a small black fierce dog. Unlike a dog, it can run very fast, swims across the rivers, and easily climbs trees!

 

F. It is not the Tasmanian devil, however, that is the scariest legend of the island, but the Tasmanian tiger. The animal looks like a large dog, with a long tail like rats have, with black stripes like tigers have, with a pouch (a pocket on the belly like kangaroos have) and with very powerful long jaws that are as scary as crocodiles’. When the Europeans settled in Tasmania, this mystical animal hunted their sheep and the people hunted the tiger. The Tasmanian tiger was declared extinct in the first half of the 20th century. But there are locals and researchers who are sure that the animal still exists and is hiding in the thick forest. They have not given up searching for it.

 

G. Sadly, it is not only animals who didn’t manage to survive the colonization of the island by the Europeans. The archaeological evidence proves that the aboriginal people lived on the territory of Tasmania as early as 40,000 years ago. The first Europeans only arrived there in the 17th century and that led to tension and violent fighting between the colonists and the aborigines. Most natives were killed and those who survived were exiled to Flinders Island. Without any immunity to the local infections, the very last aborigines soon died too.

 

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40
Задание 9 № 1735

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Strict rules for tourists

2. The native people’s art

3. No one will eat you there

4. Filmmakers just love the place

5. Visiting the national parks

6. The early story of New Zealand

7. A symbol of the country

8. The favourite domestic animals

 

 

A. It’s not necessary to fly to New Zealand to admire its wonderful views. You can see them all in the movies that were shot there. The Lord of the Rings was made entirely in New Zealand, and the country’s beautiful landscapes depicted Middle Earth, the Hobbits’ Land. King Kong and The Chronicles of Narnia, as well as dozens of less known films, transfer us to the most mysterious places on the planet. Apart from the scenery, another attraction for producers is the Wellington production studio and the famous Weta, a special effects studio and props manufacturer.

 

B. The tourists who admire the green scenery of New Zealand often mention that they have never seen so many sheep grazing in the fields. And this is true — there are a lot of sheep there. According to statistics, the population of the country is about 4.6 million people. The population of sheep is several times greater. In general, there are six sheep per person! The first sheep were brought to New Zealand by Captain Cook in the 18th century and since then sheep products have been the main part of the country’s agricultural production.

 

C. From the very beginning, farming was a good business for the European settlers as the cattle were very safe there. There are no predators on the unique islands — neither wolves nor tigers nor lions. New Zealand is indeed a blessed, peaceful place. That is why you can see animals there that would not have survived in any other place on the planet. Even birds and bats spend most of their time on the ground as there is no need to hide or fly for their lives.

 

D. The kiwi, a bird that cannot fly, represents good proof that even a helpless creature can live a long and comfortable life in the peaceful woods of New Zealand. The kiwi is a remarkable bird indeed. Its wings are so small that they are invisible under the brown feathers. A female kiwi lays only one very large egg and it is the male parent who usually warms it. You can see the image of the kiwi bird everywhere — from souvenirs to airline emblems and military badges. The association with the country is so strong that New Zealanders themselves are often called kiwis.

 

E. The image of the kiwi bird is certainly one of the main themes in Maori drawings, woodcrafts, and tattoos too. It is a fact that the fantastic flora and fauna of New Zealand inspires the aborigine people of Maori. Their craftworks are original and beautiful! The Maori are especially famous for their traditional crafts like weaving and carving. The government of the country does a lot to help the Maori keep their traditions. The art pieces of old and new craftsmen can be seen in museums and galleries all over the world.

 

F. Due to its geographical position, New Zealand was discovered relatively recently. It was in the middle of the 17th century when the ship of the Dutch explorer, Abel Tasman, approached the unknown land for the first time. But the Maori’s reception of the unwanted guests was so hostile that the sailors did not dare to step ashore. The attempt was only repeated in 1769, when Capitan Cook landed to the island. His first experience ended up in a fight with the native people but then the captain managed to establish contact with them.

 

G. Nowadays the inhabitants of New Zealand have nothing against overseas visitors. They are happy to show their country. There are some restrictions, however, and you’d better observe them to keep out of trouble. For example, you may have a lot of problems if you want to bring your pet with you, whatever size or kind it is. Honey, seeds, fruit, meat and a lot of other items are prohibited from entering the country. The restrictions are needed to protect the delicate balance of the place that was isolated from the rest of the world. Every foreign item could be dangerous for it!

 

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41
Задание 9 № 1771

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. The greatest place to learn music

2. A great music heritage

3. The best performance ever

4. Early years

5. The magnetic place for tourists and art lovers

6. The first free man in the world of music

7. Depressing health problems

8. Brief biographical facts

 

 

A. Everyone who comes to Vienna can feel the very special atmosphere of the city. It is the capital and the largest city of Austria. Its population is only about 1.8 million, but millions of people from other countries come to Vienna every year. They come to see Vienna's beautiful gardens and palaces, and to listen to the beautiful music. Vienna is the city of Mozart and Haydn. Beethoven spent 35 years of his life in Vienna and considered it his home.

 

B. Ludwig van Beethoven was a German composer and pianist who greatly influenced European music. He was born in 1770 in Bonn, into the family of a court musician. No one is completely sure of the date of his birth but it is known that he was baptized on December-17, 1770. At the age of 21, Beethoven moved to Vienna and never went back to the town of his birth. He created a great number of musical compositions and was a famous figure in the artistic world. He died in 1827 in Vienna after a long illness.

 

C. There were seven children in Ludwig van Beethoven’s family but only the three boys survived. Ludwig was the oldest of them. The father worked as a musician at the court in Bonn and he was his son’s first music teacher. He was a strict teacher and had ambitions of making his son “a new Mozart”. The mother was a kind and gentle woman and Ludwig always referred to her as his best friend. Young Ludwig was a gifted child and he gave his first public performance at the age of seven.

 

D. From time to time young Ludwig van Beethoven had to replace his father as a musician at the court of Bonn. The influential people at the court, and even the Royals, noticed the talented musician and sent him to Vienna to continue his musical education. Vienna was the main city in terms of culture and music in those times. Beethoven took lessons with the greatest musicians. Some historians say that Mozart was impressed by his abilities, but there is actually no proof that Mozart and Beethoven ever actually met in person.

 

E. Ludwig van Beethoven had a lot of admirers among aristocrats and even members of European royal families. When Beethoven wanted to leave Vienna, the wealthiest people of the city gave him an annual grant of 4,000 florins. That money was enough to forget about any financial problems. The only condition was that Beethoven would stay in Vienna. The grant made him the world’s first independent composer who could write what he wanted and when he wanted.

 

F. In Vienna, Beethoven’s career was very successful and his social life was very intense. Everyone admired the talented young composer. However, at some moments of his life Ludwig felt desperately unhappy. In his late twenties he realized that he was going deaf. Beethoven took it as the greatest unfairness of life — the musician who could not live without music was going to lose the ability to hear it. Unfortunately, the deafness was getting worse and worse but even that did not prevent him from writing brilliant music. He heard it in his mind.

 

G. Ludwig van Beethoven was probably the most famous and influential figure in the world of music of his time. It was the time of the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in European music. His best-known compositions include 9 symphonies, 5 piano concertos, 1 violin concerto, 32 piano sonatas, and one opera, Fidelio. It is a curious fact that Beethoven composed only one opera, which he re-wrote several times, and it took him years to complete it.

 

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42
Задание 9 № 1807

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Great music never dies

2. A genius performer of three musical roles

3. Family and childhood

4. A famous house in the countryside

5. He disappointed and amazed his teachers

6. A quick start of a brilliant career

7. His friends in the musical world

8. A gentle giant

 

A. A small settlement of Ivanovka, near Tambov, in Central Russia attracts a lot of tourists. People from the country and from all over the world come there to see a two-storeyed wooden cottage, and the large garden around it with the bushes of lilac and jasmine. Now it is a museum. This ordinary, rural place became so famous due to the great Russian composer Sergey Rachmaninov. From 1890 to 1917 it was the summer residence of Rachmaninov's family where a lot of world-famous musical compositions were created.

 

B. According to documents, Sergey Rachmaninov’s place of birth was Oneg, a place near Veliki Novgorod. He was the fourth child in a family with three sons and three daughters. It was an old aristocratic family — the father was an army officer, and the mother was a daughter of a wealthy Russian general. Both parents loved music and were good pianists. All the children were interested in music but Sergey demonstrated not only ability but talent.

 

C. Sergey Rachmaninov’s mother started to teach him music at the age of four. She was the first one who noticed his remarkable memory — the boy was able to play long passages from memory without a single mistake. Later Rachmaninov

became a student of St. Petersburg Conservatory. He was not a very careful student — sometimes he skipped classes and spent too much time on the skating rink. However, all of his teachers were astonished at his fantastic piano technique, remarkable memory, and creativity. They thought him a genius!

 

D. In 1891 Rachmaninov graduated as a pianist from the Moscow Conservatory and his name was later written in gold letters on a memorial tablet on the conservatory's front wall. Even before his graduation, at the age of 19, Rachmaninov composed the “Prelude in C Sharp Minor.” It became his bestknown work which made him famous almost overnight. A year after, in 1892, Rachmaninov graduated as a composer. By that time he had already established his recognisable style of music: rather dark, melancholy and worrying.

 

E. Sergey Rachmaninov composed great music. He surprised the best musicians of his time with his astonishing technique as a pianist. Amazingly, he had also phenomenal conducting skills. Rachmaninov was appointed Principal Conductor of the Bolshoi Theatre in 1904. Years later he was offered several posts of orchestra conductor in America, most notably with the Boston Symphony Orchestra.

 

F. Sergey Rachmaninov had possibly the largest hands in classical music. He could span 12 piano keys from the tip of his little finger to the tip of his thumb. Many of his compositions are difficult to perform for pianists with smaller hands and a shorter span. According to his contemporaries, Rachmaninov was a very tall man, he always had to lower his head a bit whenever he entered a room. His voice was somewhat hushed and low. But he moved around quietly, and never shouted or lost his temper.

 

G. Most of Sergei Rachmaninov’s compositions were created in the first part of 20th century (only a limited collection dates to the later years of the 19th century). In spite of the time which has passed, his music is still extremely popular. Rachmaninov’s works are considered to be classical music standards. In terms of technique, his music is very complicated and only the best musicians of modern times are able to perform it. No doubt Sergei Rachmaninov will be an inspiration to pianists and composers in the future.

 

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