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Задания 12. Понимание основного содержания прочитанного текста
1.

Вы проводите информационный поиск в ходе выполнения проектной работы. Определите, в каком из текстов A–F содержатся ответы на интересующие Вас вопросы 1–7. Один из вопросов останется без ответа. Занесите Ваши

ответы в таблицу.

 

1. Where can we find the biggest "lungs" of the Earth?

2. What is the largest country in the world?

3. What are the impressive achievements of Russian space programme?

4. Which Russian souvenir is the most popular among the tourists?

5. Where in Europe can we find the biggest collection of books?

6. What are the impressive facts about Siberian Lake Baikal?

7. Which role does the Russian language play in the world?

 

A. Russia, also officially known as the Russian Federation, is the largest country in the world. Its territory is 17,075,400 square kilometers. According to scientists, the country’s territory would almost cover the surface of the planet Pluto. It is the only country which is washed by 3 oceans and 12 seas. Russia is considered to be a European country, but two-thirds of the country are in Asia. However, most of the population lives in the European part of Russia.

B. Siberian Lake Baikal is the largest pool of fresh water on the planet. All the 12 major rivers of the world (the Volga, the Don, the Yenisei, the Ob, the Ganges, the Amazon, etc.) would need to flow almost a year to fill a pool equal to the volume of Lake Baikal. Another impressive fact is that even if all the rest of the planet’s fresh water supply were to disappear, there would be enough fresh water left in Lake Baikal to supply the people of the earth for up to 50 years.

C. Russia is the country with the largest forest reserves in the world. 45% of its territory is covered in green forests. The forests are located in the European north of the country, in Siberia and in the Far East. Forests play an important role in the life and welfare of people. Russian forests are the biggest ‘lungs’ of the Earth. They produce oxygen and clean the atmosphere of carbon dioxide and other pollutants.

D. There are more than five thousand languages in the world. Russian is one of the five major world languages. 280 million people around the world speak Russian and it is one of the most widely spoken native languages in Europe. The United Nations uses Russian as one of the official languages of the organization. It is also used in international commerce, politics, academic and cultural life.

E. For its collection of books, the Russian State Library is considered to be the biggest in Europe and one of the largest in the world. The Russian State Library was founded in 1862, in Moscow. The library has over 275 km of shelves with more than 43 million items, including books, journals and magazines, art publications, music scores and sound records, maps and other things. There are items in 247 languages of the world.

F. Russia is known all over the world for its space programmes. In 1957 the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite in the world. Four years later, in 1961, human space flight was accomplished. Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin was the first man to journey into space. He orbited the Earth and landed the same day. There are other impressive space achievements of the country like the first long space flight, the first woman cosmonaut in space, and the first spacewalk.

 

 

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2.

Вы проводите информационный поиск в ходе выполнения проектной работы. Определите, в каком из текстов A–F содержатся ответы на интересующие Вас вопросы 1–7. Один из вопросов останется без ответа. Занесите Ваши

ответы в таблицу.

 

1. What are the impressive facts about Sunday papers?

2. What is one more proof of the importance of the papers?

3. What are the papers for better educated people?

4. What were the results of the desire to attract more readers?

5. What is the alternative source of news?

6. How could one in Britain tell what kind of paper the person was reading?

7. What can we find in any newsagent`s shop in Britain?

 

A. As in many other European countries, Britain’s main newspapers are losing their readers. Fewer and fewer people are buying broadsheets and tabloids at the newsagent’s. In the last quarter of the twentieth century people became richer and now they can choose other forms of leisure activity. Also, there is the Internet which is a convenient and inexpensive alternative source of news.

B. The ‘Sunday papers’ are so called because that is the only day on which they are published. Sunday papers are usually thicker than the dailies and many of them have six or more sections. Some of them are ‘sisters’ of the daily newspapers. It means they are published by the same company but not on week days.

C. The quality papers or broadsheets are for the better educated readers. They devote much space to politics and other ‘serious’ news. The popular papers, or tabloids, sell to a much larger readership. They contain less text and a lot more pictures. They use bigger headlines and write in a simpler style of English. They concentrate on ‘human interest stories’ which often means scandal.

D. Not so long ago in Britain if you saw someone reading a newspaper you could tell what kind it was without even checking the name. It was because the quality papers were printed on very large pages called ‘broadsheet’. You had to have expert turning skills to be able to read more than one page. The tabloids were printed on much smaller pages which were much easier to turn.

E. The desire to attract more readers has meant that in the twentieth century sometimes even the broadsheets in Britain look rather ‘popular’. They give a lot of coverage to scandal and details of people’s private lives. The reason is simple. What matters most for all newspaper publishers is making a profit. They would do anything to sell more copies.

F. If you go into any newsagent’s shop in Britain you will not find only newspapers. You will also see rows and rows of magazines for almost every imaginable taste. There are specialist magazines for many popular pastimes. There are around 3,000 of them published in the country and they are widely read, especially by women. Magazines usually list all the TV and radio programmes for the coming week and many British readers prefer them to newspapers.

 

 

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3.

Вы проводите информационный поиск в ходе выполнения проектной работы. Определите, в каком из текстов A–F содержатся ответы на интересующие Вас вопросы 1–7. Один из вопросов останется без ответа. Занесите Ваши

ответы в таблицу.

 

1. Why do people have a romantic outlook on the trains?

2. What is the impressive fact about the double-decker buses in Britain?

3. Why were school crossing patrols introduced?

4. What is the thing the British are enthusiastic about?

5. How can the private roads be connected with the pollution?

6. What are two possible ways to travel between any towns or cities?

7. What is the world`s oldest underground railway?

 

A. The British are enthusiastic about mobility. They think that the ability to travel far and frequently is their right. People can spend up to two or three hours commuting to London or another big city and arrive back at their homes in the countryside only late in the evening. They put up with the long journey because they want their families to avoid the unhealthy lifestyle of big cities.

B. Most journeys to work are made by private road transport. It leads to the pollution so familiar to many big cities, and to traffic jams. Congestion is especially high in Britain because the British do not welcome the idea of building new roads. They don’t like living close to them. Each proposal to build a new road is criticised so it’s not easy to improve the road situation.

C. Perhaps because the trains were the first means of transport in Britain many people still have a romantic outlook on them. Thousands of train-lovers spend a lot of time looking for information about trains, especially old steam engines. Many enthusiasts spend their free time restoring and repairing old trains. They even earn some money by offering rides to tourists.

D. It is possible to travel between any two towns or cities by either road or rail. In some parts of the country there is a very good rail network but most commercially successful trains run between London and the largest cities in the country. By modern European standards British trains are not fast. Coach services are generally even slower than trains but are much cheaper. It explains why they are still in use.

E. Britain is one of the few countries in Europe where double-decker buses are a common sight. Although single-deckers have been in use since 1960s, London still has many double-deckers in operation. They are world-famous, an image associated with the city. Another London icon is the black taxi. Normally, these traditional taxis cannot be hired by phone. You simply have to find one on the street.

F. On 9 January 2013, the London Underground (or the Tube) celebrated 150 years since the first underground journey. It is both the world's oldest underground railway and the oldest rapid transit system. It was also the first underground railway to operate electric trains. The Underground has 268 stations and 400 km of track, making it the longest metro system in the world by route length.

 

 

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4.

Вы проводите информационный поиск в ходе выполнения проектной работы. Определите, в каком из текстов A–F содержатся ответы на интересующие Вас вопросы 1–7. Один из вопросов останется без ответа. Занесите Ваши

ответы в таблицу.

 

1. Why do the temperatures in different parts of our planet rise?

2. What kind of changes are caused by global warming?

3. What are the impressive facts about various eco-friendly means of transport?

4. Which problems are not going to disappear by themselves?

5. Why is recycling becoming easier nowadays?

6. What are the current problems with the rainforests?

7. What are the aims of the new institution in Russia, connected with the protection of country`s natural resources?

 

A. Recycling is becoming easier and more widespread. Governments support companies that recycle waste. Also people prefer to buy things from companies that make their products from recycled materials. Reports say that people worldwide are starting to care more about what happens to waste products. For example, now Americans recycle almost 35% of their waste, while in the 1990s the percentage was much smaller.

B. In autumn 2004 a new governmental body was created in Russia to protect the country’s natural resources. It’s called the Federal Ecological Service. The aims of the new institution are the following: to prevent environmental pollution and to control industrial waste. They say that the new governmental service has improved the state system of environmental protection in Russia.

C. Climate change is on us. Ten years ago we only spoke about it, now it’s happening before our eyes. Global warming is bringing unpredictable changes. The Arctic sea ice is disappearing; glaciers are melting faster every year. Due to heavy rains some rivers overflow, while others dry out. Disasters such as tornadoes and floods are spreading. Strong hurricanes are becoming more common and more destructive.

D. People burn plenty of coal, oil and natural gas. As a result of this billions of tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) are released into the atmosphere every year. CO2 is a greenhouse gas that traps the sun's radiation within the atmosphere so the concentration of CO2 increases. As a result of this, temperatures in different parts of the planet rise.

E. They are designed to work using electric power, without gasoline. It means that they don’t pollute the atmosphere, cost less and reduce the need for oil. Such cars are reliable and have interesting designs. However, they have a few bad points. Many have a maximum speed limit of about 50 miles per hour. Most cities are not ready for the appearance of such cars on their roads.

F. Environmental organisations have been discussing ways of saving the rainforests for many years. However, we are still facing huge losses in the Amazon. People think that rainforests have already had enough attention. They have been discussed in the press for years. Unfortunately the rainforest is still in danger and can be destroyed completely.

 

 

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5.

Вы проводите информационный поиск в ходе выполнения проектной работы. Определите, в каком из текстов A–F содержатся ответы на интересующие Вас вопросы 1–7. Один из вопросов останется без ответа. Занесите Ваши

ответы в таблицу.

 

1. What is one of the most popular amusement parks in the world?

2. Where can one find the safest bathing beach in the world?

3. What disaster is a fact of Florida life?

4. What makes Florida an ideal place for different sports?

5. What are the impressive facts about the wildlife in Florida?

6. Why do thousands of parents and their children go to Florida?

7. What is the sunniest state of the USA?

 

A. Florida has always been very popular with tourists from different parts of the world. It presents a lucky combination of pleasant climate and man-made attractions. Thousands of parents and their children go there in search of fun, sun and entertainment. They enjoy theme parks like the Walt Disney World Resort and the Sea World Resort, numerous movie studios, water parks, pools and other facilities.

B. One of the most popular places is the Walt Disney Resort, the biggest amusement park in the world. It includes different attractions for younger tourists. Children can enjoy magic exhibits or explore science at special centers situated within the area of the resort. They can also watch wild animals at the Animal Kingdom or enjoy one of the world movies at Disney Studios.

C. However, there is more to see in Florida than just Mickey Mouse. Florida is probably the sunniest state of the USA. Its nickname is the ‘Sunshine State’. Though Florida is one of the flattest states in America, its landscape is really amazing. Lakes with fresh water, hills, forests, eight miles of coastline and countless small islands create a fantastic atmosphere in the resort.

D. Florida provides an opportunity for adventure on both land and water. There are many types of unique wildlife, including dolphins and whales, deer and black bears. Tourists can enjoy African wildlife in a huge park in Tampa Bay. Giraffes, lions and zebras walk through the park’s grounds. Tourists can watch the animals in the wild and take photos. It goes without saying all kinds of hunting are strictly prohibited.

E. Besides all of this, Florida is also an extremely popular seaside resort. One of its beaches was called the safest bathing beach in the world. The range of facilities for holidaymakers is also impressive — from banana riding to renting boats for fishing and dolphin watching. Numerous cafes offer tourists excellent service, tasty seafood and a vast variety of drinks to cool down on a hot day.

F. Hurricanes are a fact of Florida life. They can affect some vacations that is why it’s wise to avoid Florida in certain months. The Florida Hurricane Season officially starts on June 1 and ends on November 30. Historically, September is the most active month of the year. The National Hurricane Centre monitors the territory of Florida in order to warn the people of the danger well beforehand.

 

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6.

Вы проводите информационный поиск в ходе выполнения проектной работы. Определите, в каком из текстов A–F содержатся ответы на интересующие Вас вопросы 1–7. Один из вопросов останется без ответа. Занесите Ваши

ответы в таблицу.

 

1. What is the most frequently visited place in India?

2. When was the first university established?

3. What is the India`s greatest river?

4. What is the most famous Indian cinema industry?

5. Where can one find striking ancient Indian temples?

6. What is the most often visited Indian historic area?

7. What are the unusual facts about Indian climate?

 

A. The world’s first university was established in India in 700 BC, where more than 10,500 students from around the world studied more than 60 different subjects. The training was conducted in Sanskrit. Nowadays Sanskrit is considered to be the mother of all the European languages. Its elements can be traced in most of them.

B. The most frequently visited place in India is Delhi, the capital of the country. It seems to be divided into two parts. New Delhi is a modern city with hi-tech architecture, tourist attractions and modern facilities. Old Delhi is several centuries old, with narrow streets, ancient churches and noisy bazaars. Lots of people live in slums without the most essential facilities like toilets and running water.

C. People all over the world know of India’s greatest river, the Ganges. It is the subject of thousands of prayers. The river looks extremely beautiful in the morning light. It is believed that bathing in the Ganges helps to cure all kinds of diseases and can improve your life in general. It has become a common ritual for pilgrims to gather by the river in the mornings.

D. The most famous and often visited Indian historic area is the Golden Triangle. It consists of the cities of Delhi, Agra and Jaipur. Lying in the south-east, Agra attracts tourists with its iconic image of the Taj Mahal palace, which is one of the eight wonders of the modern world. To the south-west is the colourful ‘Pink City’ of Jaipur, known for its Palace of Winds.

E. India is not all history. It is also famous for its Bollywood industry, which produces love stories and action films. Indian films have always had their own style, rich in music and dancing. Though the industry is still developing, many of Indian film stars have received Oscar prizes and are known throughout the world. The home of Bollywood is Bombay, also known as a busy port and the country’s commercial centre.

F. There is an unusual treasure hidden in the Indian mountains. These are striking ancient temples cut in the rocks. For example, the Buddhist cave temples at Ajanta were built at least 2,000 years ago. Inside the caves on the walls tourists can see pictures of people’s lives and animal images. Some researchers believe that the interpretation of the images can help us to learn a lot about people’s lives in ancient times.

 

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7.

Вы проводите информационный поиск в ходе выполнения проектной работы. Определите, в каком из текстов A–F содержатся ответы на интересующие Вас вопросы 1–7. Один из вопросов останется без ответа. Занесите Ваши

ответы в таблицу.

 

1. Which part of island of Great Britain is occupied by Scotland?

2. Which plant is the floral symbol of Scotland?

3. What games are accompanied by traditional bagpipe music?

4. Which country is often see as a magical one?

5. What are the benefits of using heather in household?

6. Why is it said that Scotland can be an excellent destination for open-air activities?

7. What are the impressive facts about Scotish Daily life?

 

A. Thanks to television and films, Scotland is often seen by the rest of the world as a magical country, a land of misty mountains and the home of a lake creature called Nessie. This is the image most people have in mind. The truth, however, is completely different from the way the world thinks of Scotland. You may be surprised to find out that most Scots live in the lowlands and don’t believe in Nessie.

B. Scottish heather, a small bush with flowers, is the floral symbol of the country. The colour of the flowers usually varies from purple to lilac, but they can also be white. In the past, the Scots believed that they would never be captured by enemies and would win victories if they wore white heather. Today, when getting married, girls add white heather to bouquets to bring fortune to their family.

C. Heather has grown in Scotland as far back as its history goes. This has turned it into a kind of household good. Heather honey is rich in minerals, and was traditionally used in medicinal drinks. Thousands of years ago, dried heather was used to make perfumes, and the tough stems were used to make ropes. On many of the northern Scottish islands, heather played a major role in the construction of houses.

D. Scotland is an excellent destination for open-air activities all year round. Its lakes and coastline are ideal for boating and rowing and have some of the best sea-kayaking in the world. The rivers are perfect for fishing and the mountains are wonderful for hill climbing and skiing. Scotland is also good for walkers. You can enjoy easy family walks or more difficult mountain hikes.

E. The Highland Games in Scotland date from long before Scotland’s written history. The various athletics allowed men to demonstrate their physical power and the skills needed for battle and survival. The Games today still include the athletic competitions in their original form together with dancing contests. All the competitors wear kilts. Traditional bagpipe music accompanies all the events.

F. Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Edinburgh, the country's capital and second largest city, is one of Europe's financial centres. The population of the country is a little over 5 million people. The currency is the pound sterling although the Bank of Scotland issues its own notes and coins.

 

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8.

Вы проводите информационный поиск в ходе выполнения проектной работы. Определите, в каком из текстов A–F содержатся ответы на интересующие Вас вопросы 1–7. Один из вопросов останется без ответа. Занесите Ваши

ответы в таблицу.

 

1. Where did the first coffeehouse appear?

2. Where was coffee first found?

3. Where were the first coffee berries cultivated?

4. Who adapted coffee as a national drink in 1776?

5. What are the ways of making coffee?

6. What happens if one drinks coffee slowly and how can it cause some experiments?

7. What made the first European coffeehouses so popular?

 

A. Coffee was first found in Eastern Africa in the area we know today as Ethiopia. A popular legend says that one day a man called Kaldi was watching his goats eating grass and leaves. He noticed that after eating berries from a certain bush the goats became very active. Curious, Kaldi tried the berries himself. He found that these berries gave him additional energy. The story quickly spread throughout the region.

B. The first coffee berries were transported from Ethiopia to Arabian countries and then they were cultivated in Yemen. From there, coffee travelled to Turkey where coffee beans were roasted for the first time over open fires. The roasted beans were crushed and then boiled in water, creating the drink we enjoy today. Finally, in the seventeenth century coffee arrived in France, Britain and Italy.

C. The first coffeehouses opened in Mecca and quickly became popular centres of social and political activity. The government believed that coffee stimulated radical thinking, and the governor even thought it might unite his opposition. As a result, coffee was forbidden in Mecca. The same thing happened in Turkey a century later, when coffee drinkers were severely punished.

D. They say, in 1776 the thirteen American colonies adopted coffee as their national drink instead of tea. When the British tried to raise the tax on tea, Americans refused to buy it and switched to coffee. In fact, by drinking coffee Americans demonstrated their political views and their dislike for the British — the famous tea-lovers.

E. The Italians drink their espresso with sugar, the Germans and Swiss add an equal part of hot chocolate, the Mexicans prefer it with cinnamon, and the Belgians — with chocolate. Coffee drinkers in the Middle East usually add cardamom and spices. The Egyptians, on the other hand, are extremely fond of pure, strong coffee. They add neither milk nor cream.

F. When the first European coffeehouses opened, they quickly grew into places where people played chess, exchanged gossip, sang and danced. Coffeehouses were very popular because anyone could go and enjoy a cup of the drink. The price of a cup of coffee was reasonable. European coffee houses became meeting points for intellectuals, writers and businessmen.

 

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9.

Вы проводите информационный поиск в ходе выполнения проектной работы. Определите, в каком из текстов A–F содержатся ответы на интересующие Вас вопросы 1–7. Один из вопросов останется без ответа. Занесите Ваши

ответы в таблицу.

 

1. What is it like to run a marathon?

2. How can one get ready for a marathon ?

3. Who runs just for fun?

4. Who supports the runners?

5. Can the landscape help the runners?

6. How did it start?

7. How can one be sure of the winners?

 

A. Many cities in the United States hold marathons. The city of Chicago, Illinois, has its marathon once a year. The running area in Chicago is almost absolutely flat. The scenery is amazingly beautiful. This fact has helped some runners set some of the world’s fastest times there. Many of them hope to go back again.

B. Some people know that they have no chance of winning but they participate anyway. They are not officially registered for the race — they just start running with the crowd. These runners are called “bandits.” Many of them finish the race hours after the serious runners but they are happy to cross the finish line anyway.

C. Recently, a British writer and journalist, Mario Roter, ran in a marathon. He thought it would be fun to write an article about what people felt during the race. Later he said that running forty-two kilometers was no fun. Many people agree that there is no pleasure in running a marathon, but afterwards it feels great to know that you have done it.

D. People usually start training for a marathon in early spring. They run often and gradually increase the length of their runs from eight to twelve and even to twenty kilometers. At this point it is necessary to build up the needed strength. In the months before the race, the average participant runs a total of more than eight hundred kilometers.

E. Usually there are lots of runners. The line of people stretches back hundreds of meters. As the winners are awarded prize money it is important to avoid cheating. In order to track all the participants, special chips are used. When the participants register for the marathon, they get their identification number and computer chips. The chips are activated at the start of the race and keep time.

F. A marathon is usually a big public event. In the city where the marathon is held hundreds of people give their time and effort to make the race possible. The city police block traffic on the main roads. Some runners thank the officers as they run by. Every few kilometers there are volunteers who offer water to the runners. Lots of people cheer.

 

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10.

Вы проводите информационный поиск в ходе выполнения проектной работы. Определите, в каком из текстов A–F содержатся ответы на интересующие Вас вопросы 1–7. Один из вопросов останется без ответа. Занесите Ваши

ответы в таблицу.

 

1. What are the complications of bad sleeping patterns?

2. What steps can prepare our bodies for going to sleep?

3. What is the impact of sleepless nights at exam time?

4. Why is sleep so important for people?

5. What can be dangerous about watching a movie late at night?

6. Which lesson should help children sleep well?

7. In what kind of environment do people usually sleep best?

 

A. It’s common knowledge that people sleep best in a dark room that is slightly cool. It's important to close your blinds or curtains and make sure they're heavy enough to block out the light. You can add extra blankets or wear pyjamas if you're cold. Note that an uncomfortable bed, heat and noise can ruin a good night's sleep. A TV is also a distraction.

B. If you don’t sleep enough or have a disturbed sleep you can get heart disease, high blood pressure and even diabetes. People who don't sleep enough get colds and flu more often than those who do. Moreover, recent research proves that poor sleepers gain weight more easily than people who sleep well. Extra kilos are the reaction of the body to the stressful sleepless situation.

C. Think twice before watching a movie late at night. Don’t spend sleeping time on endless computer games. The thing is that by getting up and going to bed at the same time every day, even on weekends, you teach your body to follow a healthy regime. You'll quickly fall asleep, will have a good night’s sleep and will wake up at the expected time feeling fresh and active.

D. Some easy steps can prepare your body for going to sleep. You probably have some regular bedtime habits, even if you don’t realise it. Brushing your teeth, taking a shower, reading a book and setting your alarm clock may all be part of your evening routine. Remember that you should perform these activities in the same manner and in the same order every night.

E. Sleepless nights at exam time are very bad for students. If you prepare for your exam late at night, it will not improve your performance during the exam. On the contrary, it will affect your ability to concentrate, to react quickly and to analyse information. Recent research shows that the results of the tests written after sleepless nights are lower than usual grades.

F. If you think that during sleep, the brain rests, you're mistaken. It's a common myth about sleep. Sleep is definitely needed — but it's not your brain that needs to rest, it's your body that needs to relax. Your brain is still working when you're asleep, controlling physical functions like breathing and your heart beat. However, because the brain does not have to go through the constant stress of thinking, you get up refreshed and recharged.

 

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11.

Вы проводите информационный поиск в ходе выполнения проектной работы. Определите, в каком из текстов A–F содержатся ответы на интересующие Вас вопросы 1–7. Один из вопросов останется без ответа. Занесите Ваши

ответы в таблицу.

 

1. What is the main fact about the material of jeans?

2. What thing is one of fashion`s most long enduring trends?

3. Who had the idea of using fasteners for jeans pockets?

4. When did jeans become a symbol of oppositions for young artists and writers?

5. What is the most recognizable article of American clothing?

6. Are jeans easy to care for?

7. Who made jeans popular?

 

A. Jeans are one of fashion's most long enduring trends. Cowboys wear them but so do supermodels, farmers, presidents and housewives. Ask any group of people why they wear jeans and you will get a range of answers. For some they're comfortable and easy — for others they're trendy and cool. Jeans mean different things to different people but they are popular everywhere.

B. Americans do not have a national folk dress with a long tradition. Blue jeans are probably the most recognisable article of American clothing. They have been part of American life for over 125 years. Blue denim jeans became not only an expression of American fashion but also an element of American identity known around the world.

C. Jeans were first designed as trousers for farmers and miners in the states of the American West. They quickly grew popular with common people, including cowboys, factory employees and railroad builders. The new trousers were made from a very strong material which did not wear out easily. However, at the same time jeans were very practical and comfortable to wear.

D. Pockets were the weak point of the miners' clothes — they easily tore away from the jeans. A man called Jacob Davis had the idea of using metal rivets (fasteners) to hold the pockets and the jeans together so that they wouldn't tear. Davis wanted to patent his idea, but he didn't have enough money, so he offered Levi Strauss a deal if Strauss paid for the patent. Strauss accepted and started making jeans.

E. Jeans are good because they don't show the dirt. You can easily go a month without washing them and they don't look shocking. They don't need to be washed as often as other trousers and you don't need to iron them. What's more, because of the strong material you can wear your favorite jeans for years. Even the occasional hole or spot doesn’t spoil them at all.

F. In the 30s and 40s many people began to spend their spare time watching movies where adventurous cowboys rode horses, fought bad guys and wore blue jeans. The actors made jeans popular in movies and everyone wanted to wear them. Young people wished to imitate the casual “cowboyish” look they saw in films, and they began to wear jeans as casual wear.

 

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12.

Вы проводите информационный поиск в ходе выполнения проектной работы. Определите, в каком из текстов A–F содержатся ответы на интересующие Вас вопросы 1–7. Один из вопросов останется без ответа. Занесите Ваши

ответы в таблицу.

 

1. Which colour was long considered as an unlucky one?

2. What is the national food in Ireland?

3. What is a false stereotype about the Irish?

4. What kind of short humorous poems made one Irish town known all over the world?

5. What world famous journey is connected with one Irish writer?

6. Which Irish talisman is considered to be a lucky one?

7. What are the impressive facts about old holiday traditions?

 

A. When you think of the Irish, you often picture a red-haired person dressed all in green. However, it's just a popular myth which has grown into a tradition, particularly in the United States. It's customary in Ireland to wear green clothes only on St. Patrick's Day. Lots of people are tricked by this cliche. However, originally, the colour associated with Saint Patrick was not green, but blue.

B. In Ireland, the colour green was long considered to bring bad fortune. The reason is that in Irish folklore green is the favourite color of the Good People (the proper name for fairies). Myths run that they are likely to steal people, especially children, who wear too much of the colour. In the past, a girl would never wear anything green on her wedding day.

C. Christmas is a very important celebration in Ireland. After dinner on Christmas Eve, it is common for families to leave milk and bread on the table as a sign of friendliness and kindness. Another custom is to leave the door unlocked. A lit candle is left in a window during the night. It represents help for any traveller who is passing by.

D. Potatoes form the basis for many traditional Irish dishes. They are eaten boiled,mashed, fried, baked, you name it. Potatoes are mixed with cabbage or green onions to make traditional Irish dishes. They are also made into potato cakes and used in soups or stews. It’s common to find potatoes cooked in two different ways on the same dinner plate.

E. The shamrock is still a popular sign of good fortune in Ireland. It is believed that anyone who possesses one will be blessed with fortune in everything, even in gambling, and will be saved from the evil of witches. There are certain conditions to be met so that its power remains effective: the owner of the shamrock must keep it away from the public eye and never give it to anyone else.

F. Ireland is known as the native land of limericks — short humorous poems that have five lines. They make people laugh and are easy to remember! Lots of poets and writers were fond of limericks. The word “limerick” probably comes from the Irish town of Limerick. The short poem has made the town known all over the world.

 

 

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13.

Вы проводите информационный поиск в ходе выполнения проектной работы. Определите, в каком из текстов A–F содержатся ответы на интересующие Вас вопросы 1–7. Один из вопросов останется без ответа. Занесите Ваши

ответы в таблицу.

 

1. What village is famous for Paperboys procession?

2. What feast is important for the whole country?

3. What unusual festival is connected with lifting weights?

4. What is the Cheese Rolling Ceremony?

5. What tradition of eating together is popular in the village of Randwick?

6. Where do people celebrate a feast in memory of the past events?

7. Where is a cookery sprint held?

 

A. A woolsack race is one of the British local festivals that could be called strange. It started in Tetbury, a wool town, in the 17th century when young men wanted to demonstrate their physical strength. Since then, every spring men and women compete in teams to carry heavy woolsacks up and down the hill. The race events are complemented by a funfair and musical entertainments.

B. Midsummer is the time for the Cheese Rolling Ceremony in many places. Competitors gather at the top of a hill. The Master of the Ceremonies lets a heavy head of cheese roll down the hill. Brave runners race down to be the first to catch it. Unfortunately, the event was cancelled in 2010 due to safety issues.

C. The village of Marshfield, England, is famous for its Paperboys procession. People dressed in paper costumes go through the streets. They start from the market place and perform the town’s unique character play along the road. By noon they have done more than six performances for several hundred people.

D. Every January Up Helly Aa is celebrated in Scotland. People dressed in Viking costumes and helmets go through the streets of Lerwick. They hold flaming torches, sticks with special material on the top which burns in order to give light. The strongest participants carry a full size model of a Viking ship to an open field. There the people throw lit torches into the ship and burn it.

E. Melbourne Cup Day is held in Australia, in November. Although Cup Day is a public holiday only in the city of Melbourne, the rest of the country refuses to be left out of the event. People gather around televisions and computers, whether at work, at home, or wherever they are, just to watch this world famous horse race. This event is often called ‘the race that stops the nation’.

F. In a village in Eastern England, an unusual race takes place every year. Three groups take part in the race – adults, children (under 11s) and teenagers. Each participant receives a frying pan with a pancake and has to race from one end of a field to the other, throwing the pancake into the air and catching it in the frying pan without dropping it. The winner is the first to cross the line.

 

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14.

Вы проводите информационный поиск в ходе выполнения проектной работы. Определите, в каком из текстов A–F содержатся ответы на интересующие Вас вопросы 1–7. Один из вопросов останется без ответа. Занесите Ваши

ответы в таблицу.

 

1. What is a favourable location for tourists?

2. Where was a special medicine from birds discovered?

3. Why do some people call Cheltenham a green town?

4. What are the annual events in Cheltenham?

5. Where can people take the waters in a historical building?

6. What name should people remember after visiting Cheltenham?

7. Where is tourism developing with care for the environment?

 

A. Cheltenham is a small, ancient town in England situated to the north-west of Oxford. It lies below the highest point of the Cotswold Hills and above the level of the River Severn. The town is also called «The Western Gateway». Thanks to its position it has become a popular tourist attraction.

B. The Pittville Pump Room is the largest of the spa constructions in Cheltenham. It is a magnificent, old house of classical style made of white stone. The Pump Room was designed for balls and entertainments and, of course, for taking the medicinal waters. Today, it is still used as a concert hall at festival time and for weddings, and of course, visitors can still take the waters – if they so wish!

C. Tourism is highly developed in Cheltenham and the City Council has to reduce the negative impact of tourists on the town. A lot has been done. The town has developed walking, cycling and public transport routes as an alternative to cars. There is a pool of bicycles that tourists can use for short distance journeys. The local services try to recycle all the packaging, plastic bottles and batteries left by tourists.

D. Many famous people of the past have connections with Cheltenham. Gustav Holst, a well-known English composer of the 19th century, was born in the town. His house is now his birthplace museum. Visitors may learn a lot about Holst's life, his music and his family. The famous Antarctic explorer Edward Wilson was also born in Cheltenham. Now a statue of him stands in the Long Gardens.

E. The beauty and wonderful sights of Cheltenham continue to attract visitors from countries all over the world. For many years people have enjoyed the beauty of Cheltenham's parks, open spaces and the general greenery of the town. Cheltenham has been described as ‘a town within a park’. Montpellier place, which is famous for its wonderful flowers, lies in the centre of the town.

F. Thousands of visitors come to Cheltenham to take part in the festivals which are held in the town every year. The town organises literature, music, jazz and science festivals, attracting names with a national and international reputation from each field. Besides all this, for a week in March the town becomes the centre of the National Gold Cup in horse racing.

 

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15.

Вы проводите информационный поиск в ходе выполнения проектной работы. Определите, в каком из текстов A–F содержатся ответы на интересующие Вас вопросы 1–7. Один из вопросов останется без ответа. Занесите Ваши

ответы в таблицу.

 

1. What can make meals different?

2. What is special about holiday scents?

3. What is another unique charasterictic?

4. Can people smell the emotions?

5. Which scents can have a relaxing effect?

6. How can scents create memories?

7. Which aroma is widely used nowadays?

 

A. Nothing brings back memories like a particular smell. Whether it's of Christmas pine, your grandma's fresh-baked gingerbread, or cookies, the scents of Christmas are truly special. In the days leading up to this day, the house fills with the wonderful rich, spicy smells of vanilla, cinnamon and ginger coming from the kitchen, promising delights to come.

B. Some of the most pleasant scents after a hard day are vanilla, lavender, and scents with cinnamon or ginger. Each combination of aromas can influence you positively. For example, vanilla's sweet scent can help you if you feel sad, lonely, or depressed. It is a naturally warming aroma. Cinnamon is good in case you feel tired; it also has a wonderful effect on your nerves, calming you down.

C. The ability to smell is linked to our ability to remember things. When you first smell a new thing, you connect it to an event, a person, or even a moment. As a result, later the smell of cookies might remind you of spending time at your grandmother's house when you were a small child. When you come across the smell a second or third time, the link is already there, ready to bring out a certain mood.

D. There are certain smells we can identify from a mile away — almost as if they're preprogrammed into our minds. One of them is vanilla. Today, vanilla is in our coffee, perfumes, tea, home products, body lotion, and everywhere! Both the scent and taste of vanilla are very strong and long-lasting. It is considered one of the most popular scents and flavours in the world.

E. Our sense of smell does 80% of the job when we taste various foods. Without a sense of smell you can’t taste the difference between an apple and a potato or a glass of juice and a cup of cold coffee. This is why, when our nose is blocked by a cold, most foods seem tasteless. Our sense of smell becomes stronger when we are hungry.

F. There are many good reasons to believe that we all have our own particular smell. Research has proved that our smell might distinguish us from others just as our face does. Our smell is as personal as our fingerprints. For centuries the police have used this phenomenon to catch criminals. Maybe one day they will use our scent too.

 

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16.

Вы проводите информационный поиск в ходе выполнения проектной работы. Определите, в каком из текстов A–F содержатся ответы на интересующие Вас вопросы 1–7. Один из вопросов останется без ответа. Занесите Ваши

ответы в таблицу.

 

1. What are the historical facts about street art?

2. Who invented an innovative method?

3. What are different reasons for drawing in the street?

4. Why do some artists prefer to keep their names secret?

5. Who of all the unknown artists became a legendary figure?

6. What is the meaning of the term “street art”?

7. What is a commercial effect of traditional graffiti?

 

A. Street art can be described as art that is developed in public spaces and above all in the street. It can mean a lot of different things including graffiti, poster art, wall paintings, and just about any artwork that is displayed in public places. Typically, street art is used to separate public-space artwork from illegal graffiti and vandalism.

B. The start of street art is closely connected to graffiti, which appeared in New York in the 1970s. The American artists soon became an inspiration for a number of other young street artists all over the world. For the following ten years graffiti grew more and more popular and was soon joined by new forms of street art including street installations, street sculptures and 3D pavement illusions.

C. Street artists are often associated with opposition. Their artwork is considered a crime and vandalism and the artists may be arrested for damaging property so the artists prefer to use nicknames and create their drawings mostly at night. They are not looking for fame, especially in countries where graffiti is still illegal.

D. Banksy is probably the most famous English street artist who has already become a legendary figure. It’s still true that no one knows who the person really is. However, his works are exhibited in galleries across the world. An American magazine even named him among the top most influential people in the world. However, he was the only one whose photo the magazine could not publish.

E. The motivations and ideas that inspire street artists are as different as the artists themselves. Some street artists, by creating certain works, want to draw attention to social and political problems. For other artists, street art is just a form of self-expression. And there are those who enjoy the challenge and risks which are connected with working illegally in some city areas.

F. Traditional graffiti has recently been used as a successful method for advertising. Lots of companies agree that traditional advertising on city streets is too boring and common so many people simply ignore it. However, graffiti adverts catch your attention, creating a memorable image. Big companies find this quite useful and try to include more elements of graffiti in their advertising campaigns.

 

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17.

Вы проводите информационный поиск в ходе выполнения проектной работы. Определите, в каком из текстов A–F содержатся ответы на интересующие Вас вопросы 1–7. Один из вопросов останется без ответа. Занесите Ваши

ответы в таблицу.

 

1. Which place is ideal for a family weekend?

2. What is ideal for beginners?

3. Which all-inclusive tour can one take to the lakes?

4. Where can we find a magical journey?

5. Why is the freedom of choice connected with cycling?

6. What is an unusual mean of transport to travel through a desert?

7. What kind of journey can one have across the continent?

 

A. Everyone knows that cycling is a nice and healthy way to travel. It offers you independence. You don't depend on timetables. You can go where and when you want. You can stop at a restaurant when you please, stay in the places you like and leave if you get bored. The world is yours.

B. Learn the basics of rock climbing with Cliffs and Ice. It is a perfect choice for those who decide to take up climbing for the first time. After a week in Cornwall you will learn the main skills necessary to become a competent climber. We will give you an experience that you can use in different climbing areas in the UK.

C. It is situated close to the Lake District, which is known for picturesque scenery. The ingredients that will help you make an unforgettable winter holiday with your nearest and dearest are: the welcoming fireplaces, delicious food, cosy rooms and different sports facilities. It's perfect for a weekend trip with children. Take the people you love to our delightful hotel in the country.

D. A journey through a wild and faraway desert — by camel! This is a wonderful choice for anyone who wants to forget the modern means of travelling. You'll be on top of a camel and part of a desert caravan. Camel drivers will accompany you, providing good company, as you admire the golden sand and the bright blue sky.

E. The Hogwarts Express plays a big part in the adventures of Harry Potter. A trip to the Scottish Highlands can be your chance to sit in the same carriage and dream about your own trip to the mysterious world. The journey goes through some of Scotland's most splendid scenery. The best part of the journey is when the train crosses the Glenfinnan viaduct, a railway bridge.

F. Are you ready for Africa? Say yes and take a Safari Holiday. It is a mystery, wonder and ... adventure! Our safari experts will take you through Africa from east to west. We offer views of dunes, mountain ranges, untouched beaches and open fields. You will see the amazing wildlife and beautiful nature. Let us make your African safari an experience you will never forget!

 

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18.

Вы проводите информационный поиск в ходе выполнения проектной работы. Определите, в каком из текстов A–F содержатся ответы на интересующие Вас вопросы 1–7. Один из вопросов останется без ответа. Занесите Ваши

ответы в таблицу.

 

1. What kind of communication problems can one face in real life?

2. What are different opinions about social networks?

3. Why do some people call social networking sites “time eaters”?

4. What are the hidden dangers?

5. What kind of new communication opportunities are provided by social networks?

6. What are the new prospects in education?

7. What is a fact about worrying time statistics?

 

A. The popularity of social networking sites such as Vkon-takte, Facebook, MySpace, and Classmates has risen more than four times from 2005 to 2009. Many users say these sites are good for our society, but others are sure that there are more dangers in them than benefits. Your attitude to such websites depends on your age, job, interests and way of life.

B. Social networks promote communication with friends and family, they give people necessary and useful computer skills and teach them to express their ideas in a clear way. Another thing is that the sites let people create new relationships and reconnect with old friends. In every way, more communication, even online, makes connections stronger.

C. Social networking sites make people spend more time online and less time communicating face-to-face. The sites have many time-wasting activities. You stay online longer than you planned and do nothing serious or important. Experts say that teenagers spend about nine hours every week on social networking sites.

D. Psychologists say that social networking sites can have serious disadvantages. It is hard for children to have real conversations and make friends. They become selfish personalities and lose interest in real life. Parents spend less time with their children and all members of the family spend less time with each other because they are using the Internet instead of communicating in person.

E. Internet users spend most of their time on social networks and blogs. Users in the USA spend about five and a half hours every month on their favourite site. And the number is growing. Russians spend 6.6 hours monthly on social networking sites. It is more than people in any other country. For example, in Europe it is 3.7 hours a month.

F. New research shows that social networking sites can be used in schools. Teachers should find ways to use them in class. It would help students to learn how to get information from Internet resources and share it with classmates. Students would also be able to express themselves creatively and present themselves better.

 

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19.

Вы проводите информационный поиск в ходе выполнения проектной работы. Определите, в каком из текстов A–F содержатся ответы на интересующие Вас вопросы 1–7. Один из вопросов останется без ответа. Занесите Ваши

ответы в таблицу.

 

1. How can people use their digital personal assistants?

2. What kind of mobiles is ideal for a grandma?

3. What kind of strange competition started in Finland in 2000?

4. How can people get back to real-life communication?

5. What is a law against mobiles?

6. How can people recognize phone addiction?

7. What kind of a new musical instrument was used by a young Chinese girl?

 

A. Young people often worry about the style and functions of mobile phones. However, today companies present more models for people who are over 50 or 60 years old. They need a mobile phone with large buttons, so that they can dial numbers without glasses. The menu is also simple. It really doesn't matter if the phone has a camera or the Internet. For them, less is more.

B. Today, when friends meet in a cafe, they put their mobile phones in the middle of the table. They aren't allowed to touch them at all. If someone does it and answers the phone, they have to pay for everybody. Sounds fun, right? The idea is to make people concentrate on a real conversation with each other instead of using their mobiles all the time.

C. Visitors of theatres and cinemas often complain that mobile phones ring during performances. The city government of New York passed a new act. It is now forbidden to use mobile phones in places, like theaters, libraries, museums, galleries, and cinemas. Those who don't switch off their mobiles will have to pay $50.

D. With mobile phones we can contact anyone, anywhere, any time. Scientists say that some people are so used to mobiles that they can't go to the kitchen without them. They are in panic if they leave them at home or lose. It has become a habit to have a mobile everywhere. People depend on mobile phones so much that doctors have started worrying. They say it may be a thing similar to drugs.

E. In 2010, a young girl from China made a song using only her mobile phone. She wrote it without any guitars, pianos, drums. She used different functions of her mobile. It took her several days to record the song. Later she made a video of it and put the video on the Internet, where over a million people watched it. She sent the song to the Apple company and suggested using it in their advertisements.

F. Today's mobile phones can already send e-mails, surf the Internet, and keep you in touch with friends. Tomorrow's phones are like helpful secretaries. In a few years you'll see that they know your habits and can advise you what to cook for dinner. They will remind you where to go and what present to buy.

 

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20.

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ответы в таблицу.

 

1. What is the essential piece of uniform?

2. How can one choose the place to learn?

3. How do people continue keeping the tradition?

4. Why is it never too late to learn?

5. How does “learn and play” technique work in the Dublin College of English?

6. What are the advantages of learning together?

7. Which subject is less popular?

 

A. Christ's Hospital school was founded in the 16th century. Its uniform at that time consisted of a long blue coat, a leather belt and yellow socks. Today students still wear the same uniform because they think it's a symbol that unites them. There was some talk about making the uniform more modern but it was decided to keep the original uniform.

B. The Dublin College of English offers one, two or three week Football and English Programmes. They are for young people who are interested in both learning English with native speakers and practising football. The students enjoy the friendly, inspiring atmosphere in the classrooms, after which they improve their skills on the school football pitch.

C. Harrow is a prestigious boys' school in northern London with a strict uniform policy. You can easily recognise a Harrow student by his hat, which is part of the uniform. All boys have to wear their hats every day when going to or from lessons. Some students are allowed to wear a different scarf, tie or jumper but the hat should always be there. Wearing it remains a must.

D. One of the recent trends is the growing number of elderly students in universities and colleges. It is believed that the elderly and the young can benefit from studying in a mixed class. The older ones are quicker at detailed and logical tasks. On the other hand, younger students can often help their older classmates with new gadgets and technologies.

E. When it comes to studying English abroad, try to get as much information about the school as possible. Asking the right questions will help you save money, time, and avoid culture shock. Remember that the school should provide you both with good teaching and with an unforgettable experience so besides everyday classes, social activities should be part of the programme.

F. In most British schools children start studying a foreign language at 11, but many are happy to give up languages completely at 14. Research suggests that students think that it is more difficult to get good marks in Modern Foreign Languages than in other subjects such as Science or History. They also say that foreign languages are less fun than other lessons like PE or Art.

 

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21.

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ответы в таблицу.

 

1. Where can we see the best Gzhel collection and see how it is made?

2. Who can become a Gzhel artist?

3. What do we call Gzhel?

4. What is the technique of Gzhel painting?

5. What is the traditional Gzhel ceramics design?

6. What is the origin of the word Gzhel?

7. How were the first Gzhel products used?

 

A. Gzhel is a famous type of Russian ceramics. It comes from the region with the same name, which is situated about sixty kilometers away from Moscow. Gzhel is not one place, to be exact. There are about 27 villages in the area which are involved in Gzhel ceramic production. The place can be easily reached by railroad and it is often visited by tourists.

B. It is believed that the place where Gzhel ceramics is produced was named after the river Gzhelka, a small river flowing through the area. However, linguists still argue about where the word comes from. Some of them say it has Baltic roots. Others claim that the name is connected with the technological process. The word gzhel is similar to an old Russian word which means burn. Indeed, the clay should be burnt to become hard before it is good enough for pottery.

C. The clay production in Gzhel started to develop in the 17th century when the Russian monarch ordered the delivery of different sorts of clay to Moscow. Gzhel clay was found to be the best for making pots and containers for pharmacies. The doctors and pharmacists valued it a lot. They preferred to keep most of the medicine and herbs in ceramic pots to keep them fresh and effective for a long time.

D. Gzhel ceramics can be easily identified by its beautiful white and blue coloured decoration. White means pure snow and moonlight. Light and dark blue symbolize the calm sky and rivers. Though the images on ceramics are usually flowers, they are all unique. Every item is a handmade picture with a unique combination of lines. Blue and white Gzhel ceramics are well-known all over the world.

E. You may think that Gzhel painters create their works freely, using their imagination. Although the talent of an artist and creativity are certainly important, the painter needs to follow a very strict technological scheme. Each ornament represents an image or a story that is given a code. All the codes are listed in catalogues and kept in the factory library. Technologists use catalogues to modernize production and organize training for new painters.

F. The Gzhel museum is a special attraction. The finest items from the 15th century to the present are displayed there. The collection of the museum contains about two thousand pieces and presents a great variety of bowls, vases, tea sets, toys and statutes. The place is good for a family day out — apart from enjoying the displays and buying souvenirs you can watch the production process or take classes in sculpture or painting.

 

 

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22.

Вы проводите информационный поиск в ходе выполнения проектной работы. Определите, в каком из текстов A–F содержатся ответы на интересующие Вас вопросы 1–7. Один из вопросов останется без ответа. Занесите Ваши ответы в таблицу.

 

1. What should you remember to stay safe using the Metro?

2. Which is the longest Metro train route?

3. When did the Moscow Metro start working?

4. What are the advantages of the Metro compared to other means of transport?

5. How fast does the Metro system grow?

6. What are the inconveniences of using the Metro?

7. What materials were used to decorate the Metro stations?

 

A.The idea of an efficient transportation system in Moscow dates back to the time of Russian Empire. However, it was not developed into a construction plan due to World War I and the Civil War. The government of the Soviet Union got back to the idea in the 1920s, and in 1935 the Moscow Metro accepted its first passengers. The opening ceremony took place on May 15th, at 7am. The city celebrated the event with parades, concerts and performances.

B. The population of Moscow is around 12 million people. There are also a lot of people who come to the capital on business, excursions or to change plane or train, as Moscow is the main transportation centre. If there was no underground transport, it would be impossible to avoid a traffic standstill in the city. In fact, the Metro is very punctual. There are no traffic jams underground and, when taking the Metro, the passengers save time and nerves.

C. Lots of the city passengers prefer the Metro to cars and buses in spite of some discomfort caused by too many people. The problem is that the stations, the passages between them, and the railway cars get really overcrowded in rush hours. Sometimes there are lines to enter the Metro, though, fortunately, the waiting time is quite short.

D. When you travel on the Moscow Metro, long magnificent staircases get you downstairs and upstairs. They run fast and you need to be really careful to step on and off them in time. To avoid accidents, never cross the waiting line at the station until the coming train stops completely. Remember that you should never lean on the doors of the railway cars when the car is in motion — it can be really dangerous.

E. Apart from being an efficient means of transport, the Moscow Metro is a very ambitious architectural and art project. The stations look radiant and brilliant due to marble, bronze, steel, milk glass and other luxurious interior materials. The best architects, such as L. Polyakov, K. Ruzhkov, A. Medvedev and others, worked on it. The chief lighting engineer was Abram Damsky, who cleverly used the light to highlight the beauty of the stations.

F. The first line of the Moscow Metro was 11 km long and included 13 stations. Now there more than 230 stations, most of which are underground, but there are also surface-level and elevated stations. The project that is currently in progress suggests that about 150 km of new lines are to be opened within ten years, between 2012 and 2022.

 

 

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23.

Вы проводите информационный поиск в ходе выполнения проектной работы. Определите, в каком из текстов A–F содержатся ответы на интересующие Вас вопросы 1–7. Один из вопросов останется без ответа. Занесите Ваши ответы в таблицу.

 

1. What cultural and media subjects took the name of Gorky Park?

2. At what time is Gorky Park open to the public?

3. How can you get to Gorky Park by public transport?

4. What kind of films can you see in the open-air cinema in Gorky Park?

5. What entertainment does Gorky Park offer in the cold season?

6. What kinds of animals can you see in Gorky Park?

7. Why is Gorky Park a great place to be active?

 

A. Gorky Park, officially named Gorky Central Park of Culture and Leisure, is a very popular place with the residents and guests of Moscow. It covers about 250 hectares and stretches along the bank of the Moskva River. The huge park is actually very close to the centre of the busy city — it is between Garden Ring and Third Ring Road and you can easily get there by bus or by Metro. The nearest Metro metro station is Park Kultury, and there are a few more stations within walking distance.

B. Gorky Park was the first amusement park created in the Soviet Union. It was opened in 1928 and became a model for lots of other parks set up across the country. In 2011, Gorky Park had major reconstruction and the amusement rides were removed. The place turned into an eco-friendly zone which works non-stop and is accessible round-the-clock, day and night, seven days a week. There is no entrance fee.

C. Gorky Park is a large recreational zone in a megapolis which gives its people an opportunity to relax and entertain in the open air. However, not all the seasons in Russia are warm enough for outdoor activities. Does this mean that in winter Gorky Park turns into a deserted place? Of course not! Gorky Park turns into a huge skating rink where people skate along the alleys, beautifully decorated with colourful lights.

D. You may be surprised to find a club for young naturalists in Gorky Park but it is really there and it is called Green School. Parents think it is a very good idea as city children do not have lots of opportunities to watch animals. On the territory of Green School they can see rabbits, parrots, turtles and other animals. Apart from that mini-zoo, children are welcomed to the garden, greenhouse, woodwork shop and library.

E. A quarter of a million people visit Gorky Park at weekends, which is a convincing indication of its popularity. There you can see students getting ready for their tests on the green grass, people practicing yoga and those taking dancing or drawing lessons in the open air. The spacious park provides lanes for jogging, table tennis equipment and football and volleyball pitches. You can also hire a bike or take part in the numerous workshops.

F. Probably, there’s no person in Russia who has never heard of Gorky Park. Due to its popularity, it has been the setting for a number of films. The park was described in the novel Gorky Park by Martin Smith, which was later made into a film with the same name. The famous single Wind of Change by the rock band Scorpions refers to Gorky Park in the early 1990s. And, of course, Gorky Park, the Russian hard rock band that named itself after the park, contributed to the atmosphere of the place.

 

 

 

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24.

Вы проводите информационный поиск в ходе выполнения проектной работы. Определите, в каком из текстов A–F содержатся ответы на интересующие Вас вопросы 1–7. Один из вопросов останется без ответа. Занесите Ваши

ответы в таблицу.

 

1. When was the Museum of Cosmonautics opened?

2. What space-related tourist attractions are located near the Museum of Cosmonautics?

3. How often does the Museum of Cosmonautics change its exhibits?

4. What can the exhibits tell us about the early stage of space exploration?

5. Where is the Museum of Cosmonautics located?

6. What facilities does the Museum of Cosmonautics offer to its visitors?

7. Where can you look for information about international space flights?

 

A. VDNKh is one of the central and most impressive Metro stations in Moscow. It is featured in tourist guides and there are always lots of people going in and out of the station. Right by the Metro Station exit, a monument to the Conquerors of Space will certainly attract your attention. It is not only an impressive monument — inside the base of the Space monument tower you will find the Museum of Cosmonautics — a unique museum with exhibits which are definitely worth seeing.

B. The monument to the Conquerors of Space was constructed in 1964 to glorify the first manned space flight. It is designed as a 107-metre high obelisk, and its shape resembles the fumes from the rocket. The shiny rocket is on the very top of the obelisk, heading up to the sky. The Museum of Cosmonautics appeared in the base of the monument much later. It welcomed the first visitors on April 10, 1981. The event was devoted to the 20th anniversary of Yuri Gagarin’s space flight.

C. There are several exhibit halls in the museum. In one of them, there are objects and documents referring to the beginning of the era of space exploration. There you can see replicas of the first satellites and the first space station, as well as some personal belongings of the first cosmonaut of the Earth. There are also some documents referring to the space flights as well as photos and videos which recorded the preparation for the first space flight.

D. After a three-year reconstruction, which was completed in 2009, a few new sections were added to the Museum of Cosmonautics. Before the reconstruction, the museum focused only on the achievements of the National Space Programme. Now, the new sections provide information about the space programmes of the USA and China. Of course, a special area is dedicated to the International Space Station, where space researchers from different countries work together.

E. Since the reconstruction, the Museum of Cosmonautics has displayed interactive exhibits, which include the simulator from the training centre. You can book a training session on board the spaceship and feel what real cosmonauts do. The museum has got a lecture hall, which is appropriate for educational events, a cafe, where you can have space food in tubes, and a gift shop. Of course, the museum meets the needs of people with disabilities.

F. The Museum of Cosmonautics welcomes visitors every day except Monday, from 10am till 7pm. However, if you are interested in the history of space exploration, it is highly recommended to explore the area around, too. The museum and VDNKh station are connected by a green alley with busts of cosmonauts, which is called the Cosmonauts Alley. The pavilion ‘Cosmos’ in the Exhibition Centre (VDNKh) displays a lot of artefacts from the National Space Programme.

 

 

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25.

Вы проводите информационный поиск в ходе выполнения проектной работы. Определите, в каком из текстов A–F содержатся ответы на интересующие Вас вопросы 1–7. Один из вопросов останется без ответа. Занесите Ваши

ответы в таблицу.

 

1. When are the military parades on Poklonnaya Gora held?

2. What areas does the Museum of the Great Patriotic War consist of?

3. What event from the past makes the site of the park a special place?

4. What memorials on Poklonnaya Gora tell us about the military events of the 19th century?

5. What activities are available to young visitors of Victory Park?

6. Where can you see a list of the people who fought in the Great Patriotic War?

7. How to get a good idea of Victory Park in the shortest possible time?

 

A. Victory Park is a huge open-air museum in a big and busy city. It is located on Poklonnaya Gora. The place has a remarkable history — historians say it was exactly the spot where Napoleon was standing and waiting for Russians to bring him the symbolic key of the city. It did not happen. And it was the turning point in the war of 1812 — the French army had to retreat and was completely defeated.

B. As the name Victory Park suggests, most memorials and exhibitions were created to honour the people who gave their lives for the freedom of the country. The Museum of the Great Patriotic War is one of such places. When you enter it, you get into the Hall of Commanders. In the centre of the museum there is the Hall of Glory. Below it, there is the Hall of Remembrance and Sorrow. There are also upper floors that display exhibits about the war.

C. The museum of the Great Patriotic War was opened to the public on May 9, 1995. Among the official exhibits, there are personal documents and personal belongings of the soldiers, photos and letters. The museum has got an electronic memory book, with the purpose of registering the name of every soldier and tracing their fate. The book is far from being completed — new entries appear in it every month.

D. Poklonnaya Gora is a place that reminds us of the most important victories of the country. The Arc de Triumph, which is in the middle of Kutuzovsky Avenue, beside Victory Park, was constructed to commemorate the triumph of the Russian army over the French army. In 1812, the French army, headed by Napoleon, tried to conquer the country but was defeated. The Museum-Panorama The Battle of Borodino features the powerful scenes of the most important battle of that war.

E. The territory of the park is really huge and about 800000 people visit it every year. For first-time visitors, it is recommended to take a sightseeing tour. The mini-train will take you round the park. The whole tour lasts for about twenty minutes. During the trip you will listen to a brief story of the Park and will become aware of the main landmarks which should be seen. Alternatively, you can use a map - the navigation system in the park is very clear.

F. There are a lot of samples of heavy weapons in Victory Park. Tanks, ships and planes are displayed on the territory and visitors can go up to them to have a сlose look. Children are usually the most impressed. However, along with

studying the themed exhibits, children and teenagers have many other opportunities to enjoy their time in the park. There are two large playgrounds, and spacious alleys for riding bikes, roller skating and skateboarding. There are also different art and drama studios which children can attend for an outing or on a regular basis.

 

 

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Вопрос

26.

Вы проводите информационный поиск в ходе выполнения проектной работы. Определите, в каком из текстов A–F содержатся ответы на интересующие Вас вопросы 1–7. Один из вопросов останется без ответа. Занесите Ваши

ответы в таблицу.

 

1. How many official languages are there in the Republic of Ireland?

2. Which colour dominates on the island?

3. What do the colours of the Irish flag mean?

4. What Irish name is now used as a noun in several European languages?

5. After what Irish person did a geographical place get its name?

6. What are the two things associated with the country?

7. Why is the name of an Irishman well-known in the United States?

 

A. One of the informal names of Ireland is ‘the Emerald Isle’. This is because of its lush greenery and rolling hills. The island country receives a lot of rain each year, which keeps the grass green and the plants blooming. Experts argue that the flora of Ireland demonstrates more than forty shades of green.

B.The most famous symbol of Ireland is undoubtedly the shamrock clover. However, the official emblem of the country is the Celtic harp. Ireland is the only country in the world to have a musical instrument as its national symbol. The harp has become Ireland’s national symbol not because it was created there, but due to the collection of the oldest harps in the world which can now be seen in the museum at Trinity College in Dublin.

C. There is a tricolour of green, white and orange vertical stripes on the national flag of the Republic of Ireland. The flag was designed to reflect the country’s political situation. Created in 1848, the orange stripe represents Irish Protestants. Green is for Irish Catholics and white is for the hope that peace might eventually be reached between them.

D. Most people of the Republic of Ireland speak English. It is the second official language of the country because, according to the Constitution, Irish (Gaelic) is the national language of the Republic of Ireland. Irish was the primary language that was used on the island. Though children are still taught Irish at school, the language is losing its importance.

E. The White House, the official residence of the US President, was designed by an Irishman. James Hoban was born in Ireland and studied architecture in his homeland. In 1792, James Hoban won a competition for the construction of the President's house in America. He spent nine years supervising the building process. He also designed a few other important buildings in the American capital. No wonder that the name of James Hoban is famous across the ocean.

F. The widely used word boycott originated in Ireland. In 1880, a campaign of isolation against Charles Boycott, a land agent, was started. He threw out the farmers from his land when they complained that the rents were too high. After that, the local shops refused to serve him, his servants left and the boy who delivered his mail disappeared too. The surname of the land agent became a word which means ‘silently ignoring somebody or something’. The word was adopted in English, French, Dutch, German, Russian etc.

 

 

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27.

Вы проводите информационный поиск в ходе выполнения проектной работы. Определите, в каком из текстов A–F содержатся ответы на интересующие Вас вопросы 1–7. Один из вопросов останется без ответа. Занесите Ваши

ответы в таблицу.

 

1. What can the Indian ancient drawings tell us about?

2. Why do people come to the holy waters?

3. Where are Indian movies made?

4. Why is India getting more and more popular with tourists?

5. How can travellers escape the heat?

6. Which ancient language influenced modern languages a lot?

7. Why is the Indian capital called a city of contrasts?

 

A. The world’s first university was established in India in 700 BC, where more than 10,500 students from around the world studied more than 60 different subjects. The training was conducted in Sanskrit. Nowadays, Sanskrit is considered to be the mother of all the European languages. Its elements can be traced in most of them.

B.The most frequently visited place in India is Delhi, the capital city of the country. It seems to be divided into two parts. New Delhi is a modern city with hi-tech architecture, tourist attractions and modern facilities. Old Delhi is several centuries old, with narrow streets, ancient churches and noisy bazaars. Lots of people live in slums without the most essential facilities like toilets and running water.

C. People all over the world know of India’s greatest river, the Ganges. The river looks extremely beautiful in the morning light. It is the subject of thousands of prayers. It has become a common ritual for pilgrims to gather by the holy river in the mornings. It is believed that bathing in the Ganges helps to cure all kinds of diseases and can improve your life in general.

D. Indian climate differs from one part of the country to another. The air is cool and fresh in the mountains, but in the plains it is usually very hot and dry, so even a short trip can be very hard for an inexperienced traveller. That is why tourists are always glad to have a rest at one of the numerous stations in the hills. There they can enjoy a nice cup of real Indian tea, the most refreshing drink in such a climate.

E. India is not all history. It is also famous for its Bollywood industry, which produces different films. Indian films have always had their own style; they are rich in music and dancing. Though the industry is still developing, many Indian film stars have received Oscar prizes and are known throughout the world. The home of Bollywood is Mumbai, also known as a busy port and the country’s commercial centre.

F. There is an unusual treasure hidden in the Indian mountains. These are striking ancient temples cut in the rocks. For example, the Buddhist cave temples at Ajanta were built at least 2,000 years ago. Inside the caves on the walls, tourists can see animal images and pictures of people’s lives. Some researchers believe that the interpretation of the images can help us to learn a lot about people’s lives in ancient times.

 

 

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